• 2018 estimate
Europe has a 37,000 km coastline and is surrounded by the Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean, and Black Seas. It has numerous navigable rivers such as the Volga, Rhine, Danube, and Seine. The North European Plain is an open expanse stretching from Paris to Moscow.
- World Population Prospects (2019). United Nations.
- "Celebrating Shakespeare: a Marxist-Leninist perspective" (2016-06-01). Proletarian. Archived from the original on 2023-02-08.
- Neil Faulkner (2013). A Marxist History of the World: From Neanderthals to Neoliberals: 'European Feudalism' (pp. 77–78). Pluto Press.