Library:The governance of China

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This primary source is currently under transcription process using File:Xi Jinping The Governance Of China volume 1.pdf as reference.

The governance of China is a three-volume collection of speeches and writings by Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and current paramount leader of China. Presenting the official party line for China's development in the 21st century, the collection is an authoritative source on Xi Jinping Thought and a literary successor to Chairman Mao Zedong's  Quotations from chairman Mao Zedong.

Publisher’s Note

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) held in November 2012, the new central leadership with Xi Jinping as general secretary has led the whole Party and the people of China in confronting the problems and challenges they face: to drive reform and opening up to a deeper level, to modernize the national governance system, and to marshal their enormous strength behind the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Under the leadership of the CPC, the country is striving to build a bright future for socialism with Chinese characteristics.

China is attracting growing attention worldwide. The world wants to know what changes are in progress in China, and what impact they will have on the rest of the world.

As general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping has delivered many speeches on a broad range of issues. He has offered his thoughts, views and judgments, and answered a series of important theoretical and practical questions about the Party and the country in these changing times. His speeches embody the philosophy of the new central leadership.

To respond to rising international interest and to enhance the rest of the world’s understanding of the Chinese government’s philosophy and its domestic and foreign policies, the State Council Information Office, the Party Literature Research Office of the CPC Central Committee and the China International Publishing Group have worked together to produce this book – The Governance of China.

The book is a compilation of Xi Jinping’s major works from November 15, 2012 to June 13, 2014. It includes speeches, talks, interviews, instructions, and correspondence. The 79 pieces are arranged in 18 chapters, and notes are added to help readers understand China’s social system, history and culture.

The book also contains 45 pictures of Xi Jinping at work and in daily life,

with focus on the period since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012.

Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

The People’s Wish for a Good Life Is Our Goal

November 15, 2012

Part of the speech at the press conference by members of the Standing Committee of the Political

Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee.

Friends from the news media have extensively covered the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), conveying to the world many voices from China. On behalf of the Secretariat of the Congress, 1 wish to express our sincere thanks to you.

We have just held the First Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, and elected a new central leadership. I was elected general secretary of the Central Committee. On behalf of the members of the newly-elected leadership, 1 wish to express our thanks to all other members of the Party for their trust in us. We will do our utmost to be trustworthy and fulfill our mission.

We are deeply encouraged by both the trust from the Party members and the great expectations from the people of all ethnic groups in China, and we are keenly aware that this is also our important responsibility.

We are taking on this important responsibility for the nation. Ours is a great nation. Throughout 5,000 years of development, the Chinese nation has made significant contributions to the progress of human civilization. Since the advent of modern times, our nation has gone through untold tribulations and faced its greatest perils. Countless people with lofty ideals rose up for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, but each time they failed. After it was founded in 1921 the CPC rallied and led the Chinese people in making great sacrifices, forging ahead against all odds, and transforming poor and backward China into an increasingly prosperous and strong nation, thus opening completely new horizons for national rejuvenation.

Our responsibility is to rally and lead the entire Party and the people of all China’s ethnic groups in taking on this task and continuing to pursue the goal of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, so that China can stand firmer and stronger among the world’s nations, and make new and greater contributions to mankind.

We are taking on this important responsibility for the people. Our people are a great people. During the long history the Chinese people have worked with diligence, bravery and wisdom, creating a beautiful homeland where all ethnic groups live in harmony and developing a great and dynamic culture. Our people have an ardent love for life. They want to have better education, more stable jobs, more income, reliable social security, better medical and health care, improved housing conditions and a beautiful environment. They hope that their children will have sound growth, good jobs and more enjoyable lives. The people’s wish for a happy life is our mission. A happy life comes from hard work. Our responsibility is to bring together and lead the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups to free their minds, carry out reform and opening up, further unfetter and develop the productive forces, solve the people’s problems in work and life, and resolutely pursue common prosperity.

We are taking on this important responsibility for the Party. Dedicated to serving the people, our Party has led them in making remarkable achievements, which we have every reason to be proud of. Nevertheless, we should never be complacent and rest on our laurels. In the new circumstances our Party faces many severe challenges as well as many pressing issues within the Party that need to be addressed, particularly corruption, being divorced from the people, and being satisfied merely with going through formalities and bureaucracy on the part of some Party officials. We must make every effort to solve such problems. The whole Party must stay on full alert. “It takes good iron to make good products.” Our responsibility is to work with all Party members to uphold the principle that the Party should supervise its own conduct and run itself with strict discipline, effectively solve major problems within the Party, improve its work style, and maintain close ties with the people. By so doing, our Party will surely remain at the core of the leadership in advancing socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The people are the creators of history. They are the real heroes and the source of our strength. We are fully aware that the capability of any individual is limited, but as long as we unite as one like a fortress, there is no difficulty we cannot overcome. One can only work for a limited period of time, but there is no limit to serving the people with dedication. Our responsibility is weightier than mountains, our task arduous, and the road ahead long. We must always bear in mind what the people think and share weal and woe with them, and we must work together with them diligently for the public good and for the expectations of history and of the people.

China needs to learn more about the rest of the world, and the outside world needs to learn more about China. I hope our friends from the press will continue your efforts for mutual understanding between China and the rest of the world.

Study, Disseminate and Implement the Guiding Principles of the 18th

November 17, 2012
Speech at the first group study session [note 1] of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee which Xi presided over.

The political report to the 18th National Congress of the CPC has charted a grand blueprint for bringing about a moderately prosperous society in all respects, [note 2] accelerating socialist modernization, and achieving new victories for socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new historic circumstances. It is a political proclamation and action plan with which our Party will rally and lead the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in marching along the path of Chinese socialism and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects. It guides the work of the current central leadership. The CPC Central Committee has issued a notice on conscientiously studying, disseminating and implementing the guiding principles of the 18th National Congress, and Party committees at all levels should strictly comply with the notice.

It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that we should uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics, that the socialist system with Chinese characteristics is the fundamental accomplishment made by the Party and the people during the arduous struggle over the past 90 years, and that we must cherish what has been accomplished and never deviate from it but rather continue to enrich it. The Congress has called on the whole Party to explore and master the laws of socialism with Chinese characteristics, ensure that the Party is always full of vigor and that China never lacks the driving force for development, and that we must strive for a bright future for developing China’s socialism. In fact, adhering to and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics was the theme of the political report to the 18th National Congress. We must always stick to this theme, continue to develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, and work hard to reach the goal. This will enable us to study, understand and implement the guiding principles of the 18th National Congress more thoroughly, completely and conscientiously.

Why have 1 emphasized this? Because only socialism can save China, and only Chinese socialism can lead our country to development - a fact that has been fully proved through the long-term practice of the Party and the state. Only by upholding socialism with Chinese characteristics can we bring together and lead the whole Party, the whole nation and the people of all ethnic groups in realizing a moderately prosperous society by the centenary of the CPC in 2021 and in turning China into a prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious modern socialist country by the centenary of the People’s Republic of China in 2049, so as to ensure the people greater happiness and the nation a brighter future.

To study, disseminate and implement the guiding principles of the 18th National Congress with emphasis on adhering to and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics, in my opinion, it is important to pay particular attention to the following areas when applying theory to practice:

First, we must understand that socialism with Chinese characteristics is a fundamental accomplishment made by the Party and the people during long-term practice. China’s socialist system was pioneered in the new era of reform and opening up, and it is an outcome of the Party’s painstaking efforts. It was accomplished by the whole Party and whole people, under several generations of the Party’s central collective leadership, through numerous trials and tenacious efforts at all costs. Relying closely on the people, our Party lowered the curtain, once and for all, on a poor and weak country that had suffered from both domestic turmoil and foreign aggression since the advent of modern times, and made an epic move towards the steady growth, development and renewal of the Chinese nation. It has thus enabled China, a country with a civilization of over 5,000 years, to stand firm among the nations of the world.

We must always remember the historic contribution made by the Party’s three generations of central collective leadership and the Party Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao [note 3] as general secretary to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The first generation of the central collective leadership with Mao Zedong [note 4] at the core provided invaluable experience as well as the theoretical and material basis for the great initiative of building socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new historic period. The second generation with Deng Xiaoping [note 5] at the core started the building of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The third generation with Jiang Zemin [note 6] at the core advanced socialism with Chinese characteristics into the 21 st century, followed by Hu Jintao as general secretary of the Central Committee who adhered to and developed socialism with Chinese characteristics from a new historic starting point. It goes without saying that socialism with Chinese characteristics encapsulates the ideals and explorations of generations of Chinese Communists, embodies the aspirations of countless patriots and revolutionary martyrs, and crystallizes the struggles and sacrifices of the myriads of the Chinese people. It is a natural choice for the development of Chinese society in modern times, and it is the only way to bring about the courtry’s development and stability.

Facts prove that Chinese socialism is a banner of unity, endeavor and victory for the CPC and the Chinese people as a whole. We must always uphold socialism with Chinese characteristics and firmly adhere to and develop Chinese socialism in order to bring about a moderately prosperous society in all respects, accelerate socialist modernization and achieve the great renewal of the Chinese nation. This is the very reason why the 18th National Congress has called on the whole Party to have full confidence in the path, theory and system of Chinese socialism.

Second, we must thoroughly understand that socialism with Chinese characteristics consists of a path, theory and system. The 18th National Congress expounded on the scientific meaning of the path, theory and system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and the relationships between the three. The Congress stressed that the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a way to reach the goal, the theory offers a guide to action, and the system provides a fundamental guarantee. All three serve the great cause of building Chinese socialism. This is the most salient feature of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

This conclusion reveals that socialism with Chinese characteristics incorporates practice, theory and system. It synthesizes successful experience in practice into theories, uses these correct theories to guide new practices and incorporates effective principles and policies into Party and national systems. That is why socialism with Chinese characteristics is special - in its path, theory and system; in the intrinsic interaction between the way of realizing the goal, guide to action and fundamental guarantee; and in that all three serve the great practice of building Chinese socialism. In present-day China, adhering to and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics means upholding socialism in its true sense.

The path of Chinese socialism is the only way to achieve China’s socialist modernization and create a better life. This path takes economic development as the central task, and brings along economic, political, cultural, social, ecological and other forms of progress. It adheres to both the Four Cardinal Principles [note 7] and the reform and opening-up policy. It entails further releasing and developing the productive forces, and achieving prosperity for all and the well-rounded development of everyone.

The theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics is the latest achievement in adapting Marxism [note 8] to China’s conditions. It incorporates Deng Xiaoping Theory [note 9], the important thought of the Three Represents [note 10] and the Scientific Outlook on Development [note 11]. It has inherited, continued and creatively developed Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. We should not abandon Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought [note 12]; otherwise, we would be deprived of our foundation. Moreover, we must focus our work on the practical problems in reform, opening up and modernization, and on our various endeavors, with a view to the application of Marxist theory, theoretical thinking on practical issues, and initiation of new practice for development. In contemporary China upholding the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics means upholding Marxism in its true sense.

The socialist system with Chinese characteristics integrates the fundamental political system [note 13], the basic political systems [note 14], the basic economic system [note 15] and other systems and mechanisms. It combines national and local democratic systems, the Party’s leadership, the position of the people as masters of the country, and law-based governance. This system conforms to the national conditions in China, showcases the special traits and strengths of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and provides a fundamental systemic guarantee for China’s development. The socialist system with Chinese characteristics is unique and effective.

However, we should be aware that it is not perfect or fully functioning. The Chinese socialist system needs to improve to keep in step with the development of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics. During his inspection tour of southern China in 1992 Deng Xiaoping pointed out, “It will probably take another thirty years for us to develop a more mature and well-defined system in every field.” [note 16] It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that it is imperative to give top priority to the building of systems while giving full play to the superiority of the socialist political system in China. We must improve current systems and promote institutional innovation with theoretical innovation based on practice. We must proceed from reality, formulate new systems in a timely fashion, and put in place a well-developed, systematically and rationally regulated, and effective framework of systems to ensure that all systems and institutions are working properly and functioning well, and thereby provide a more effective institutional guarantee for new victories.

Third, we must have an in-depth understanding of the basic foundation, overall planning and main mandate of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that the basic foundation for building socialism with Chinese characteristics is that China is in the primary stage of socialism [note 17], that its overall plan is to seek economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress, and that its main objective is to achieve socialist modernization and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The foundation, plan and objective are succinctly and pointedly defined. A better understanding and grasp of these new definitions will help us get to the essence and essentials of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

It is important to stress the basic foundation of China being in the primary stage of socialism. This is the paramount reality and the most important national condition in contemporary China. We must always bear it in mind and promote reform and development in all respects on the basis of this very reality. It is imperative not only in accelerating the economy, but also in speeding up political, cultural, social and ecological development; not only when our economy was small, but also when it is large; and not only when planning long¬ term development, but also during daily work. The Party’s basic line for the primary stage of socialism is the lifeline of the Party and the state. In practice we must firmly adhere to “one central task, two basic points,” [note 18] neither deviating from the “one central task” nor neglecting the “two basic points.” We must adopt a holistic approach to the realization of the common ideal of building Chinese socialism and the long-term goal of realizing communism, stand firm against various erroneous views aimed at abandoning socialism, and rectify all erroneous and unrealistic mindsets, policies and measures that go beyond the current primary stage of socialism. This will keep us from being either self-abased or over-confident, and enable us to achieve new victories for China’s socialism.

We give top priority to overall planning, simply because we must achieve all-round development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The most important thing for our Party is to govern the country well and rejuvenate the nation. The Party must always represent the requirements for developing the advanced productive forces. We must focus on economic development and promote coordinated political, cultural, social and ecological development on the basis of economic growth. As China steps forward socially and economically, it has become increasingly significant to pursue ecological progress. The 18th National Congress included ecological progress in its overall plan for building Chinese socialism, thus highlighting the strategic importance of ecological progress and making it possible to incorporate ecological efforts into those for economic, political, cultural and social progress in all respects and throughout the whole process. This is an important practical and theoretical achievement of our Party in our understanding of the law of building socialism. We must carry out the overall plan, pursue coordinated development in all areas of our modernization drive, and promote harmony between the relationships of production and the productive forces, and between the superstructure and the economic base.

We pay close attention to the main objective because the CPC has shouldered the historic mission of rejuvenating the Chinese nation ever since its birth. The very purpose of the Party in leading the Chinese people in revolution, development and reform is to make the people prosperous and the country strong, and rejuvenate the Chinese nation. According to the three-step strategic plan for modernization [note 19], it is the goal of our Party and state to build a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious modern socialist country during the primary stage of socialism. The historic mission of our Party, the fundamental purpose of reform and opening up, and the goal of our country all converge in the main objective and are also derived from it. This is an objective for which we should never relax our efforts, nor should our future generations.

During different historical periods our Party has always been able to put forth inspirational goals in line with the will of the people and the needs of our development, and lead the people in achieving those goals. In response to both domestic and international changes and new economic and social developments in China, and living up to the new expectations of the people, the 18th National Congress revised the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, with a clearer policy guidance, greater inclination towards development problems, and better responses to the people’s expectations. The updated goal is coherent with those set at the Party’s 16th and 17th national congresses, and in line with the overall plan for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The whole Party and the country must act with one mind, work in a down-to-earth manner, be creative and pioneering, and forge ahead in realizing a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and continuing reform and opening up in all areas - the two goals set at the 18th National Congress.

Fourth, we must have a thorough knowledge of the basic requirements for achieving new victories for Chinese socialism, which the 18th National Congress identified and which we must fulfill with firm determination in the new historic circumstances. These requirements are based on six decades of our experience in building socialism, especially socialism with Chinese characteristics, and on the Party’s basic theories, lines, platforms and experience. They are the essentials that reflect the laws of governance by the CPC, laws of building socialism, and laws of the development of human society. They are testimony to the new understanding by our Party of the laws of Chinese socialism.

The basic requirements set forth at the 18th National Congress answer the question of how to achieve new victories for Chinese socialism on the new historic journey. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is a cause for the people in their hundreds of millions - this is why we must give full play to the role of the people as the masters of the country. Freeing and developing the productive forces is a fundamental task of Chinese socialism - this is why we must focus on economic development and pursue a people-oriented, all-round, coordinated, proper and sustainable development. Reform and opening up is the only way leading to Chinese socialism - this is why we must always apply the spirit of reform and innovation to all aspects of governance, and continuously promote the self-improvement and development of China’s socialist system. Fairness and justice are inherent requirements of Chinese socialism - this is why we must, relying on the concerted efforts of all the Chinese people and based on economic and social development, double our efforts to develop institutions that are vital to ensuring social fairness and justice, and establish in due course a system for guaranteeing social equity. Common prosperity is the fundamental principle of Chinese socialism - this is why we must ensure that all the people share the fruits of development in a fair way, and move steadily towards common prosperity. Social harmony is an inherent attribute of Chinese socialism - this is why we must rally all the forces that can be rallied, maximize the factors for harmony, stimulate the creative vitality of society, and ensure that the people lead a happy, stable life and the country enjoys enduring peace. Peaceful development is an inevitable prerequisite of Chinese socialism - this is why we must pursue development through opening up and cooperation to benefit all, expand areas of common interests with all others and build a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity together with other countries. The CPC is the core leadership for the cause of Chinese socialism - this is why we must enhance and improve the Party’s leadership and give full play to its leading and core role in exercising overall leadership and coordinating the efforts of all.

The basic requirements set forth at the 18th National Congress positively responded to the need of addressing pressing issues in China’s economic and social development, the challenges in the difficult in-depth reforms and in speeding up the transformation of the growth model, and the sensitive issues that officials and the general public are especially concerned about. They have also given us good guidance on how to pursue reform, development and stability, handle national defense and domestic and foreign affairs, and run the Party, the country and the military in this decisive stage at which China is striving to realize a moderately prosperous society in all respects. These basic requirements cover many areas - the productive forces and relations of production, the economic base and the superstructure, the great cause of Chinese socialism and the new undertaking of Party building, and a holistic approach to both the domestic and international situations. The 18th National Congress stuck close to and fully reflected these basic requirements in making plans and arrangements for actions in various areas. If we truly meet all the basic requirements we will be able to pool our strength more effectively, overcome all difficulties, pursue balanced, proper and coordinated development, promote social harmony and improve our people’s lives. Then we can complete the glorious and arduous tasks bestowed by the times.

Fifth, we must fully understand why we need to ensure that the CPC is always the firm core leadership guiding the cause of Chinese socialism. It was emphasized at the 18th National Congress that the CPC shoulders the great responsibility for bringing together and leading the people in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, in advancing socialist modernization and in achieving the great renewal of the Chinese nation. The Party’s strength and its close ties with the people have ensured China prosperity and stability, and the Chinese people peace and happiness. The new developments, the need for progress in our cause and the people’s expectations have all made it imperative for us to carry out the great new undertaking of Party building in the spirit of reform and innovation, and upgrade our efforts in all respects to a new level. To run the country well we must first run the Party well, and to run the Party well we must run it strictly. For this purpose, the 18th National Congress set forth the overall requirements for systematic Party building in the new circumstances, and spelled out the specific tasks involved. The whole Party must learn and understand them, and implement them to the letter.

The overall requirements for Party building set forth at the 18th National Congress are derived from the need to inherit and develop the fundamentals that have shored up the advanced nature of our Party, a Marxist party, for over 90 years. They respond to changes in the world, in our country and within our Party. Over the years we have been pressing ahead with the new task of Party building in all respects. The Party has enhanced its governing capabilities, preserved and improved its pioneering nature and purity, and strengthened and improved its leadership. However, in view of the need to manage changes in domestic and international conditions, and to accomplish its historic mission, there is still considerable room for our Party to improve its art of leadership, governing capacity and organization, and the quality, competence, and practices of its members and officials. Party building in the new circumstances, in particular, faces “four tests” [note 20] and “four risks” [note 21], which makes it more difficult and pressing to ensure that the Party properly manages its own affairs and strictly disciplines itself. All Party members must heighten their sense of urgency and responsibility, focus on the overall requirements of Party building, steadily improve the Party’s art of leadership and governance, and enhance its ability to resist corruption, prevent degeneration and ward off corruption risks, so that our Party may always remain ahead of the times in its historic journey accompanied by profound changes worldwide, always act as the backbone of the Chinese people in its historic response to domestic and international risks and tests of all kinds, and always be the strong core leadership in the historic journey to adhere to and develop Chinese socialism.

It has always been the foundation for the lifeline and pursuit of all Communists to have full confidence in ideals and firm faith in communism. Belief in Marxism and faith in socialism and communism are the political soul of Communists, enabling them to withstand all tests. Put figuratively, the ideals and convictions of Communists are the marrow of their faith. Without, or with weak, ideals or convictions, they would be deprived of their marrow and suffer from “lack of backbone.” This has been proved true by the cases of some Party members and officials who acted improperly due to lack of ideals and confused faith. All Party members, in accordance with the plans set at the 18th National Congress, must earnestly study and implement the system of socialist theories with Chinese characteristics, especially the Scientific Outlook on Development, reflect Party awareness in their actions, observe moral standards, set good examples and work hard for the common goal of realizing Chinese socialism.

Maintaining close ties between the Party and the people and between officials and individuals has always been the basis of our success. Facts prove that the future and destiny of a political party and government depend on popular support. If we stray from the people and lose their support we will end up in failure. We must bear in mind the new characteristics and requirements for public work in the new circumstances. We must organize our people, communicate with them, educate them, serve them, learn from them, and subject ourselves to their oversight. We should always be part of the people, work for their interests, and maintain close ties and share good and bad times with them. We should draw wisdom and strength from their great practice; deliver more concrete services to the people that meet their needs, relieve their burdens and benefit their lives; and put a stop to all acts that prejudice their interests. The 18th National Congress proposed the idea of carrying out an extensive program throughout the Party to heighten awareness of and implement the Party’s mass line [note 22], with the focus on serving the people and staying pragmatic and honest. The CPC Central Committee will make specific arrangements for this program, and Party committees at all levels should implement them, solve pressing problems of major concern to the people and make the program a success.

It has always been the CPC’s consistent and clear political position to combat corruption, promote political integrity and keep the Party healthy. Building a fine Party culture and a corruption-free Party is a major political issue of great concern to the people. “Worms can only grow in something rotten.” [note 23] In recent years, long-pent-up problems in some countries have led to resentment among the people, unrest in society and the downfall of governments, with corruption being a major culprit. Facts prove that if corruption is allowed to spread, it will eventually lead to the destruction of a party and the fall of a government. We must keep up our vigilance. Serious violations of Party discipline and state laws that have occurred inside our Party during the past few years are of a vile nature and have produced shockingly harmful political consequences. Party committees at all levels must firmly oppose and combat corruption, and prevent and crack down on it more effectively to ensure that all officials are honest and upright, governments clean and incorruptible, and Communists of political integrity. Officials at all levels, especially high-ranking officials, must conscientiously observe the code of conduct. They should exercise strict self-discipline, strengthen education and restrain their own family and staff. It is absolutely impermissible to abuse one’s power for personal gain or to seek privileges. All violations of Party discipline and state laws must be punished without exception, and we shall not be soft in dealing with them.

The 18th National Congress pointed out that developing Chinese socialism is a long-term arduous task of historic importance, and that we must be prepared for a great struggle with many new historic features. All Party members must make strenuous efforts with firm conviction and unswervingly develop socialism with Chinese characteristics in a pioneering spirit. We must keep improving the practice and theory of Chinese socialism in line with the national features in a timely fashion. We must bring together and lead the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in accomplishing goals and tasks for a moderately prosperous society in all respects. We must continue to work for the three historic missions of modernization, reunification of the motherland, and world peace and the common development of all nations. These are missions of historic importance that have been bestowed on our generation of Communists, and to which we must dedicate all our wisdom and strength.

CPC National Congress

Uphold and Develop Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

January 5, 2013 Main points of the speech at the seminar of the members and alternate members of the newly-elected Central Committee of the CPC for implementing the guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National Congress.

Which path should we follow? This is the paramount question for the future of the Party and the success of its cause. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the integration of the theory of scientific socialism and social development theories of Chinese history. Socialism has taken root in China. It reflects the wishes of the people and meets the development needs of the country and the times. It is a sure route to success in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, in the acceleration of socialist modernization, and in the great renewal of the Chinese nation.

All Party members must follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development, be firm in their commitment to socialism with Chinese characteristics and to the Marxist view on development, treat practice as the sole criterion for testing truth, and apply their historic initiative and creativity.

We must be clearly aware what is changing and what remains constant in the international, national and Party situations. Never should we hesitate to blaze new trails, bridge rivers, forge ahead with determination, and audaciously explore new territory. We should have the courage and capability to address pressing issues in our work and remove doubts in people’s minds, and come up with solutions. We should drive reform and opening up to a deeper level, make new discoveries, create new ideas, achieve new progress, and promote innovation in our theories, practices and systems.

The guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National Congress, in essence, boil down to upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics. The year 2013 is the 31st year since Deng Xiaoping put forward the concept of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. He provided for the first time clear systematic answers to several basic questions about how to build, consolidate and develop socialism in China, an economically and culturally underdeveloped country. His answers brought a new perspective to Marxism, opened up new realms, and raised the understanding of socialism to a new scientific level.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics is socialism and nothing else. The basic principles of scientific socialism must not be abandoned; otherwise it is not socialism. What doctrine a country may choose is based on whether it can resolve the historical problems that confront that country. Both history and reality have shown us that only socialism can save China and only socialism with Chinese characteristics can bring development to China. This conclusion is the result of historical exploration, and the choice of the people.

As socialism progresses, our institutions will undoubtedly mature, the strengths of our system will become self-evident, and our development path will assuredly become wider. We must have confidence in our path, our theory and our system. We must be as tenacious as bamboo, as described by Zheng Xie: “In the face of all blows, not bending low, it still stands fast. Whether from east, west, south or north the wind doth blast.”

The process by which the people build socialism under the leadership of the Party can be divided into two historical phases - one that preceded the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, and a second that followed on from that event. The two phases - at once related to and distinct from each other - are both pragmatic explorations in building socialism conducted by the people under the leadership of the Party. Chinese socialism was initiated after the launch of reform and opening up and based on more than 20 years of development since the socialist system was established in the 1950s after the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was founded. Although the two historical phases are very different in their guiding thoughts, principles, policies, and practical work, they are by no means separated from or opposed to each other. We should neither negate the pre-reform-and-opening-up phase in comparison with the post-reform-and- opening-up phase, nor the converse. We should adhere to the principles of seeking truth from facts and distinguishing the trunk from the branches. We should uphold truth, rectify our errors, draw on practical experience, and learn lessons. This is the foundation which facilitates further advance of the cause of the Party and the people.

Marxism will not remain stagnant. It will certainly keep up with the times, the progress of our practice and the advance of science. Socialism too always advances through practice. Developing Chinese socialism is a great cause. Deng Xiaoping clearly defined some basic thoughts and principles on the subject. The Central Committee headed by Jiang Zemin, and later by Hu Jintao also added some outstanding chapters to it. Now, the job of the Communists of our generation is to continue with this mission.

We must adhere to Marxism and socialism from a developmental perspective. With each step forward we will encounter new situations and unfamiliar problems, we will face greater risks and challenges, and we will be confronted by the unexpected. We must be prepared for adversity and danger, even in times of prosperity and peace.

We should not pretend to know what we do not know. We should try to put what we already know to use, and lose no time in learning what we do not know. We must not be muddle-headed.

Party members, particularly Party officials, should maintain a firm belief in lofty communist ideals, along with the common ideal of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, and pursue them with dedication.

We must be rigorous in implementing the Party’s basic lines and programs in the primary stage of socialism, and do all our work well.

Our revolutionary ideals are of the greatest importance. A Party member devoid of ideals lacks an essential quality - as does one who engages in empty talk about lofty ideals without doing anything.

There are objective criteria to measure whether Party members or Party officials have these high communist ideals. Can they stick to the basic principle of serving the people heart and soul? Can they be the first to bear hardship and the last to enjoy comfort? Can they work hard and remain honest and dedicated? And can they make every possible effort and even lay their lives on the line for the sake of their ideals?

Flawed thinking, hedonistic desires, corrupt behavior and passive attitudes - all are at odds with the communist ideals.

Carry on the Enduring Spirit of Mao Zedong Thought

December 26, 2013 Part of the speech at the symposium to commemorate the 120th anniversary of Mao Zedong’s birth.

The enduring spirit of Mao Zedong Thought refers to the stand, viewpoint and method crystalized in the Thought, which features three basic tenets - seeking truth from facts, the mass line and independence. In the new conditions, we should uphold and apply the enduring spirit of Mao Zedong Thought in building our Party and advancing the great cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

As a fundamental tenet of Marxism, seeking truth from facts is a basic requirement for Chinese Communists to understand and transform the world. It is also our Party’s basic thinking, working and leading approach. We have upheld and should continue to uphold the principle of proceeding from reality in everything we do, integrating theory with practice, and testing and developing truth in practice.

Mao Zedong once said, “‘Facts’ are all the things that exist objectively, ‘truth’ means their internal relations, that is, the laws governing them, and ‘to seek’ means to study.” He also used the metaphor “shooting the arrow at the target,” that is, we should shoot the “arrow” of Marxism at the “target” of China’s revolution, modernization drive and reform.

To seek truth from facts, we must acquire a deep understanding of a matter as it is, see through the surface into the heart of the matter, and discover the intricate link between matters amidst fragmented phenomena.

We should follow objective laws on the basis that we recognize the existence of a matter and its development laws. Upholding the principle of seeking truth from facts is not done once and for all. You may succeed by following the principle at a certain place and at a certain time, but that does not mean that you may succeed again by following the principle at another place and at another time. The conclusion or experience drawn at a certain place and at a certain time does not necessarily apply at another place and at another time. We should conscientiously strengthen our conviction in seeking truth from facts and enhance our ability to apply it. We should always bear it in mind and implement it in our work.

As we stand now, seeking truth from facts means that we should clearly understand our basic national condition, that is, our country is still in the primary stage of socialism, and will remain so for a long time to come. When advancing reform and development, and formulating guidelines and policies, we should do everything in line with this basic national condition. Any tendency to pursue quick success regardless of objective conditions and timing should be avoided, and any outdated or complacent ideas and actions which do not conform to reality, or which neglect fundamental changes of reality, should be corrected without exception.

While seeking truth from facts, we should always uphold the truth and correct mistakes for the sake of the people’s interest. We should be frank, selfless and fearless, courageously speak out truth based on facts, discover and correct ideological deviations and mistakes in decision-making and work as soon as they arise, and discover and solve all kinds of conflicts and problems when they come up so as to make our thoughts and acts conform to objective laws, the requirement of the times and the wishes of the people.

In seeking truth from facts, we should promote theoretical innovation based on practice. The basic tenets of Marxism are universal truth with eternal ideological value. Nevertheless, the classical Marxist authors did not exhaust truth but blazed a trail to seek and develop truth. Today, new problems will arise while we adhere to and develop socialism with Chinese characteristics, drive reform to a deeper level, and deal effectively with foreseeable and unpredictable difficulties and risks on our way ahead. All these things are crying out for new and appropriate theoretical solutions. We should review the fresh experience gained by the people under the leadership of the Party, constantly adapt Marxism to Chinese conditions and make contemporary Marxism shine brighter in China.

The mass line is the Party’s lifeline and fundamental work principle. It is a cherished tradition that enables our Party to maintain its vitality and combat capability. We have always been and will always be obligated to do everything in the interests of the people and rely on their strength, and carry out the principle of “from the people, to the people,” translating the Party’s policies into the people’s conscientious action and implementing the mass line in all government activities.

The mass line in essence encapsulates the basic tenet of Marxism that the people are the creators of history. We must adhere to this principle in order to grasp the basic laws governing the advance of history. We must observe these laws so that we can be invincible. History has time and again proved that the people are the major force behind historical development and social progress. As Mao Zedong said, “Once China’s destiny is in the hands of the people, China, like the sun rising in the east, will illuminate every corner of the land with a brilliant flame."

Adhering to the mass line is recognizing that the people are the fundamental force in deciding our future and destiny. The strong foundation keeping the Party invincible lies in our adhering to the people’s principal position in the country, and bringing their initiative into full play. Before the people, we are always students. Therefore we must seek advice from them. We must fully respect their wishes, experience, rights and role. We should cherish the power conferred on us by the people and exercise it discreetly, and welcome their supervision. We should rely closely on them to create historic achievements, so as to make the foundation of our Party rock-solid.

Adhering to the mass line means following the fundamental tenet of serving the people wholeheartedly.

“Decrees may be followed if they are in accordance with the aspirations of the people; they may be ineffective if they are against the aspirations of the people.” Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose and outcome of all the work of the Party, and a symbol that distinguishes our Party from all other parties. The supreme criterion for all Party actions is that it serves the interests of the great majority of the people. The effectiveness of all our work should ultimately be measured by the real benefits the people have reaped, by the improvement in their lives and by how well their rights and interests are protected. Their expectation for a better life does not allow us to be complacent or slack, but requires us to work harder to enable everyone to share more fruits of development in a fairer way and move steadily towards common prosperity.

Adhering to the mass line means maintaining close ties between the Party and the people. The supreme political advantage of our Party is its close ties with the people, and the biggest danger for a ruling party is for it to become divorced from the people. Mao Zedong said, “We Communists are like seeds, and the people are like the soil. Wherever we go, we must unite with the people, take root and blossom among them.” All Party members should bear in mind the concept of people first and the mass line, and put them into practice. We should do our utmost to solve problems within the Party and especially those the people are particularly dissatisfied with, so that our Party can always have their trust and support.

Adhering to the mass line means asking the people to judge our work. “It is the people who know whether a decree is good or not.” The future and destiny of any political party is determined by the popular support for it. Popular support is what we draw our strength from. The number of Party members is small compared to that of the people. The grand goal of our Party can never be realized without popular support. It is not up to us to judge our Party’s governance capacity or performance; they must and can only be judged by the people, the supreme and ultimate judge of the Party’s work. If we are pretentious and divorce ourselves from the people or put ourselves above them, we will surely be abandoned by them. This is the case for any party, and is an iron law which admits of no exception.

Independence is an inevitable conclusion drawn by our Party from China’s reality, after going through the stages of revolution, development and reform by relying on the strength of the Party and the people. We should always rely on ourselves when seeking our national development and defending our national pride and confidence, and resolutely follow our own road now and in the future as we did in the past.

Independence is a fine tradition of the Chinese nation and an essential principle for building the Party and the PRC. The reality and the mission to carry out revolution and development in China, an Eastern country with a large population and backward economy, have determined that we have no other choice but to follow our own path.

Boasting a vast land of 9.6 million sq km, a rich cultural heritage and a strong bond among the 1.3 billion Chinese people, we are resolved to go our own way. We have a big stage to display our advantages on, a long and rich history to draw benefit from, and a powerful impetus to push us ahead. We Chinese people - every single one of us - should draw confidence from this.

Adhering to independence means that Chinese affairs must be dealt with and decided by the Chinese people themselves. There is no such thing in the world as a development model that can be applied universally, nor is there any development path that remains carved in stone. The diversity of historical conditions determines the diversity of the development paths chosen by various countries. In the whole history of mankind, no nation or state has ever been able to rise to power and rejuvenate itself by relying solely on external forces or blindly following others; doing so inevitably leads to failure or subservience.

Our Party has always independently explored its own development path while leading revolution, development and reform. This spirit of independent exploration and practice, and the confidence and determination to stick to its own road is the bedrock of all the theories and practice of our Party, and the guarantee that our Party and people will go from victory to victory.

Adhering to independence means that we will firmly take the socialist path with Chinese characteristics. We will not take the old path of a rigid closed-door policy, nor an erroneous path by abandoning socialism. We should enhance our political faith and our confidence in the path, theories and systems of Chinese socialism. We should expand this path, enrich these theories and improve these systems through comprehensive reform and in response to changing conditions and tasks. We should modestly draw on the achievements of all other cultures, but never forget our own origin. We must not blindly copy the development models of other countries nor accept their dictation.

Adhering to independence requires us to uphold our independent foreign policy of peace, and follow the path of peaceful development. We should hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation and benefit for all, maintain friendly relations with other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, conduct exchanges and cooperation with other countries on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, staunchly safeguard world peace, and promote common development. We should take our positions and make our policies on issues on their own merits, uphold fairness and justice, respect the right of each people in deciding its own development path independently, and never force our will upon others nor allow anyone to impose theirs upon us. We stand for peaceful resolutions to international disputes, oppose all forms of hegemony and power politics, and never seek hegemonism nor engage in expansion. We will resolutely defend our sovereignty, security and development interests. No country should assume that we will trade away our core interests, nor will we accept anything that harms our sovereignty, security or development interests.

The Chinese Dream

Achieving Rejuvenation Is the Dream of the Chinese People

November 29, 2012 Speech made when visiting the exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation.”

The exhibition “The Road to Rejuvenation” is about the past, present and future of the Chinese nation, and it is a highly educational and inspiring one. In the old days, the Chinese people went through hardships as grueling as “storming an iron-wall pass.” Its sufferings and sacrifices in modern times were rarely seen in the history of the world. However, we Chinese never yielded. We waged indomitable struggles and succeeded in becoming masters of our own destiny. Imbued with the national spirit of patriotism, we have launched the great cause of building the country. Today, the Chinese nation is undergoing profound changes, like “seas becoming mulberry fields.” Having reviewed our historical experience and made painstaking efforts to probe our way forward in the past 30 years and more since the reform and opening-up process was started, we have finally embarked on the right path to achieve the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and made impressive achievements in this pursuit. This path is one for building socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the future, the Chinese nation will “forge ahead like a gigantic ship breaking through strong winds and heavy waves. Our struggles in the over 170 years since the Opium War have created bright prospects for achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. We are now closer to this goal, and we are more confident and capable of achieving it than at any other time in history.

Reviewing the past, all Party members must bear in mind that backwardness left us vulnerable to attack, whereas only development makes us strong.

Looking at the present, all Party members must bear in mind that the path we take determines our destiny and that we must resolutely keep to the right path that we have found through great difficulties.

Looking ahead at the future, all Party members must bear in mind that we still have a long way to go and much hard work to do before we can turn our blueprint into reality.

Everyone has an ideal, ambition and dream. We are now all talking about the Chinese Dream. In my opinion, achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has been the greatest dream of the Chinese people since the advent of modern times. This dream embodies the long-cherished hope of several generations of the Chinese people, gives expression to the overall interests of the Chinese nation and the Chinese people, and represents the shared aspiration of all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation.

History shows that the future and destiny of each and every one of us are closely linked to those of our country and nation. One can do well only when one’s country and nation do well. Achieving the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is both a glorious and arduous mission that requires the dedicated efforts of the Chinese people one generation after another. Empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish. Our generation of Communists should draw on past progress and chart a new course for the future. We should strengthen Party building, rally all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation around us in a common effort to build our country and develop our nation, and continue to boldly advance towards the goal of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

I firmly believe that the goal of bringing about a moderately prosperous society in all respects can be achieved by 2021, when the CPC celebrates its centenary; the goal of building China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious can be achieved by 2049, when the PRC marks its centenary; and the dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will then be realized.

Address to the First Session of the 12th National People’s Congress

March 17, 2013 Address to the First Session of the 12th National People’s Congress.

Fellow deputies,

This session has elected me president of the People’s Republic of China, and I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to you and the people of all ethnic groups for your trust in me.

I am keenly aware that the presidency entails both a glorious mission and important responsibilities. I will faithfully perform the duties vested in me by the Constitution, be loyal to the country and the people, fulfill all my duties, dedicate myself to public service, advance the interests of the people and the country, subject myself to public oversight, and live up to the trust you and the people of all ethnic groups in China have placed in me.

Fellow deputies,

The People’s Republic of China has a splendid history. Led by the first generation of the Party’s collective central leadership with Mao Zedong at the core, the second generation of collective central leadership with Deng Xiaoping at the core, the third generation of collective central leadership with Jiang Zemin at the core, and the CPC Central Committee with Hu Jintao as general secretary, the Chinese people of all ethnic groups have, making unremitting efforts one generation after another, surmounted all difficulties and obstacles on our way ahead, and made world-renowned achievements.

Today, our People’s Republic stands proud and firm in the East.

With his rich political vision, outstanding leadership and dedication, Comrade Hu Jintao made remarkable achievements in upholding and building socialism with Chinese characteristics during his ten years in office as Chinese president, and he won the heartfelt love of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups and wide acclaim from all over the world. We express our sincere gratitude and great respect to him.

Fellow deputies,

The Chinese nation has an unbroken history of more than 5,000 years of civilization. It has created a rich and profound culture and has made an unforgettable contribution to the progress of human civilization. Over the course of several thousand years, what have closely bound us together, the 56 ethnic groups of China’s 1.3-billion-plus people, are our indomitable struggles, the beautiful homeland we have built together and the national spirit we have nurtured together. Running through this history, most importantly, are the ideals and vision that we share and hold dear.

Realizing the goals of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious, and the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation means that we will make China prosperous and strong, rejuvenate the nation, and bring happiness to the Chinese people. They both embody the ideals of the Chinese people today and represent our forefathers’ glorious tradition of untiring pursuit of progress.

Facing the mighty tide of the times and the great expectations of the people for a better life, we must not become complacent or slacken off in the slightest. We must redouble our efforts and forge ahead relentlessly to advance the cause of building Chinese socialism and endeavor to realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

- To realize the Chinese Dream, we must take our own path, which is the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is not an easy path. We are able to embark on this path thanks to the great endeavors of reform and opening up made in the past 30 years and more, the continuous quest made in the 60-plus years of the PRC, a thorough review of the evolution of the Chinese nation in its 170-plus years of modern history, and carrying forward the 5,000-plus years of Chinese civilization. This path is deeply rooted in history and broadly based on China’s present realities. The Chinese nation has extraordinary capabilities, with which it has built the great Chinese civilization and with which we can expand and stay on the development path suited to China’s national conditions. The people of all ethnic groups in China should have full confidence in the theory, path and system of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and steadfastly forge ahead along the correct Chinese path.

- To realize the Chinese Dream, we must foster the Chinese spirit. It is the national spirit with patriotism at its core, and it is the spirit of the times with reform and innovation at its core. This spirit unites the people and pools their strength, and it is the source for rejuvenating and strengthening the country. Patriotism has always been the inner force that binds the Chinese nation together, and reform and innovation have always been the inner force that spurs us to keep abreast of the times in the course of reform and opening up. Our people of all ethnic groups must foster the great national spirit and follow the call of the times, strengthen our inner bond of unity and perseverance, and vigorously march towards the future.

- To realize the Chinese Dream, we must pool China’s strength, that is, the strength of great unity among the people of all ethnic groups. The Chinese Dream is the dream of our nation and every Chinese. As long as we close ranks and pursue this common dream with great determination, we can create enormous strength to achieve it and enjoy vast space for each and every one of us to fulfill our own dreams. All the Chinese who live in our great country in this great age share the opportunity to pursue excellence, realize our dreams, and develop ourselves along with our country. With a dream, opportunities and efforts, all beautiful things can be created. We the people of all ethnic groups in China should bear our mission in mind and make concerted efforts to turn the wisdom and strength of our 1.3 billion people into an invincible force.

The Chinese Dream is, in the final analysis, the dream of the people; so we must rely firmly on them to realize it, and we must steadily deliver benefits to them.

We must uphold at the same time the leadership of the Party, the position of the people as masters of their own destiny, and the rule of law, maintain the principal position of the people, expand people’s democracy, and promote law-based governance. We should uphold and improve the system of people’s congresses as China’s fundamental political system and the basic political systems of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, of regional ethnic autonomy, and of community-level self-governance. We should build a service-oriented, accountable, law-based and clean government, and fully motivate the people.

We should be guided by the strategic thinking that only development will make a difference, and steadfastly take economic development as the central task. We should comprehensively promote socialist economic, political, social and ecological advancement, further reform and opening up, boost the scientific way of development, and continue to lay a solid material and cultural foundation for realizing the Chinese Dream.

We should always bear the people’s aspirations in mind and be responsive to their expectations, ensure their equal rights to participate in governance and develop themselves, and uphold social fairness and justice. We should make steady progress in ensuring that all the people enjoy the rights to education, employment, medical and old-age care, and housing; and we should continue to fulfill, uphold and develop the fundamental interests of all the people. All these efforts will enable our people to share fully and fairly the benefits of development and move steadily towards shared prosperity on the basis of continued economic and social development.

We should consolidate and develop the broadest possible patriotic united front, strengthen our Party’s unity and cooperation with other political parties and personages without party affiliation, consolidate and develop socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony, give full play to the positive role that religious figures and believers play in promoting economic and social development, and do our utmost to rally all the possible forces around us.

Fellow deputies,

“One must both have great ambition and make tireless efforts to achieve great exploits.” China is still in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come. There is still much to do and a long way to go before we can realize the Chinese Dream and create a better life for all our people, so every one of us should continue working towards this goal as hard as possible.

Workers, farmers and intellectuals throughout the country should give full rein to their talents, work diligently, and play a key role in promoting economic and social development. All functionaries should selflessly act in the public interest, be honest and industrious, show concern for problems encountered by the people, and deliver practical services to them. All officers and men of the People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Armed Police Force should strive to build powerful armed forces that follow the command of the Party, are able to win battles and have fine conduct. They should become better able to perform their mission, steadfastly uphold China’s sovereignty, security and development interests, and resolutely protect the lives and property of the people. All the people working in the non-public sector of the economy and from new social groups should promote creativity and entrepreneurship through hard work, give back to society what they have gained from it, bring benefits to the people, and become actively involved in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Young people should aim high, acquire more knowledge, temper their will, and make their formative years richly rewarding ones in an era of progress.

Our compatriots in the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao should put the overall interests of the country and their regions first, and uphold and promote long-term prosperity and stability in Hong Kong and Macao. Our compatriots in Taiwan and on the mainland should join hands in supporting, maintaining and promoting the peaceful growth of cross-Straits relations, improving the people’s lives on both sides of the Taiwan Straits, and creating a new future for the Chinese nation. Overseas Chinese should carry forward the Chinese nation’s fine traditions of diligence and kindness, and contribute to the development of the country and friendship between the Chinese people and the people in their host countries.

We Chinese are peace-loving people. We will uphold the principle of peace, development, cooperation and mutual benefit, stay firm in pursuing peaceful development, resolutely follow a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up, and continue to promote friendship and cooperation with other countries. We will fulfill our international responsibilities and obligations, and continue to work with the peoples of all other countries to advance the lofty cause of peace and development of mankind.

Fellow deputies,

The CPC is the central force for leading and bringing together people of all ethnic groups in advancing the great cause of building Chinese socialism. It shoulders a historical mission and faces the tests of our times. We must uphold the principles that the Party was founded for the public good, that it exercises state power for the people, and that it should supervise its own conduct and operate under strict discipline. We must strengthen Party building in all respects, steadily improve the Party’s art of leadership and governance, and make it better able to fight corruption, prevent degeneration and ward off risks. All our Party members, leading officials in particular, should be firm in our belief, always place the people above all else in our hearts and carry forward the Party’s fine traditions and conduct. We should firmly oppose formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, resolutely combat corruption and other misconduct, preserve Communists’ political integrity, and dedicate ourselves to the cause of the Party and the people.

Fellow deputies,

Achieving great goals requires perseverance. All political parties, organizations, ethnic groups, social groups and people from all walks of life in China should rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee, comprehensively implement the guiding principles of the Party’s 18th National Congress, follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. We should remain modest and prudent, work hard, and forge ahead with determination to achieve new and bigger victories in realizing a moderately prosperous society in all respects and accelerating socialist modernization, and thus make new and bigger contribution to mankind.

Hard Work Makes Dreams Come True

April 18, 2013 Part of the speech at a discussion session with national model workers.

We have set the goals of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by the centenary of the CPC in 2021 and building China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious by the centenary of the PRC in 2049 so as to realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

Although the way ahead is rugged and the tasks of achieving reform, development and stability are arduous, we are confident in our future. The working class of our country must play an exemplary and leading role in taking the Chinese path, fostering the Chinese spirit and building up China’s strength, and make concerted efforts to realize the Chinese Dream.

People make history, and work creates the future. Work is the fundamental force driving the progress of human society. Happiness does not fall from the sky, nor do dreams come true automatically. To achieve our goals and create a bright future we must rely closely on the people, always act in their interests, and work in an industrious, honest and creative way. We often say, “Empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish.” This means we must first get down to work.

As we forge ahead, we must give full rein to the vital role of the working class and its historical initiative, and arouse its motivation for work and creation.

First, we must make sure that the working class is our main force. The working class is China’s leading class; it represents China’s advanced productive forces and relations of production; it is our Party’s most steadfast and reliable class foundation; and it is the main force for realizing a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and upholding and building socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy more than 30 years ago, our working class has been growing and improving, and its structure becoming better. It has taken on a new look, and its advanced nature has been strengthened. To uphold and build Chinese socialism in the future, we must rely wholeheartedly on the working class, enhance its position as China’s leading class, and give full play to its role as our main force. Relying fully on the working class is not just a slogan or label; rather, we should rely on it in the whole process of formulating Party and government policies, and implement it in our work, as well as in all aspects of production and operation of enterprises.

Second, we must rely firmly on the working class to build socialism with Chinese characteristics. Chinese socialism is what we must pursue if we are to achieve development and make progress in contemporary China, realize the Chinese Dream and create a bright future for China’s working class. Chinese workers should enhance their sense of historical mission and responsibility, do their jobs well, and keep the country’s overall interests in mind. They should pursue their ideals of life and work for the well-being of their families while working to make the country prosperous and strong, and rejuvenate the nation. They should pursue both their personal aspirations and the Chinese Dream, and, as the masters of the country, contribute to upholding and building socialism with Chinese characteristics.

The working class should have a firm belief in the vision of socialism with Chinese characteristics, closely follow the Party, resolutely support the socialist system, reform and opening up, and be the mainstay of upholding the Chinese path. The working class should practice the core socialist values, give full play to its own great strengths, influence and lead the whole of society with its vision and exemplary actions, infuse new energy into the Chinese spirit and be a model of fostering the Chinese spirit. The Chinese working class should take it as its mission to rejuvenate the nation, unleash its great creativity, carry forward its glorious tradition of acting in the overall interests of the country, maintain political stability and unity, and remain the core force for building up China’s strength.

Third, we must continue to respect work and make all those who work enjoy happiness. Work is the source of wealth and happiness. To realize beautiful dreams, solve difficulties hampering development, and be successful in life, one must do honest work. Work has shaped the Chinese nation and its glorious history, and it is work that will shape its bright future. “There is nothing that cannot be accomplished through hard work.” We must be firm in the belief that work is what is most honorable, most sublime, most magnificent and most beautiful; and we should spur the enthusiasm for work of all the people and release their creative potential to create a better life through work.

The whole of society should follow the important policy of respecting work, knowledge, talent and creation, uphold and develop the interests of people who work, and protect their rights. We should uphold social fairness and justice, remove obstacles that prevent workers from participating in development and sharing in the benefits of development, and ensure that workers have decent working conditions and achieve all-round development. The whole of society should love work, be diligent and guard against indolence.

Fourth, we must emulate model workers. The power of a good example is enormous. Model workers are the cream of the country and role models for the people. Over the years, model workers have made extraordinary achievements out of ordinary work. They have nurtured the ethos of the model workers, namely, dedication to work, striving for excellence, working hard, being bold in innovating, not being lured by fame and wealth, and being ready to make sacrifices. This has enriched the ethos of our nation and the times, and become an invaluable source of inspiration.

To meet our development goals, we must enrich ourselves not only materially but culturally and ethically as well. The people of all ethnic groups in the country should learn from model workers, follow their examples and, with a sense of urgency, strive to realize the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Model workers and other role models should cherish the honor conferred upon them and deliver an even better performance. They should be dedicated to work and make selfless contributions, and become pacesetters, having firm vision and conviction, working hard and promoting unity. Workers in China today should have not only strength, but also vision, expertise, and the capability to invent and innovate, so that they can create with action a splendid China. Party committees, governments and trade unions at all levels should value the role of model workers, care for them, support them in playing their key role, help them solve all the difficulties they encounter in work and life, and widely publicize their exemplary deeds, so as to promote the ethos of model workers.

Both the Party and workers place high hopes on the trade unions. The Chinese trade unions are workers’ organizations under the leadership of the CPC, and they serve as bridges through which the Party maintains contact with workers. They are an important social pillar supporting the government in our socialist country. The path for developing trade unions with Chinese characteristics is an important part of socialism with Chinese characteristics; it represents the nature and features of trade unions, and is an important guarantee for the trade unions to stay on the right track of development. We should keep to this path and steadily widen it.

Times keep changing, and innovation is a regular feature of our mission. Likewise, the trade unions should keep developing themselves and make innovations in their work. We should, adapting to the times and social changes, develop good and effective working methods to make workers feel that the trade unions are their “homes” and trade union officials are their “family members” whom they can turn to for help. We should make providing dedicated services to people as the starting point and goal of all the work of the trade unions, work for them heart and soul, heed their views, uphold the legitimate rights and interests of workers, including rural migrant workers, provide them with voluntary services, help solve problems they face in a down-to-earth manner, and promote harmonious socialist work relations. We need to pay close attention to the diversified demands of people who work, unleash the potential for their career development, and strive to train large numbers of high-caliber people who are knowledgeable, have a good command of technical expertise, and are innovative. Party committees and governments at all levels should strengthen and improve their leadership over the trade unions, support them in their work, and provide more resources and means to them so that they are better able to perform their functions.

A journey of one thousand miles begins with a single step. There is a bright future for our country, but reaching it will not be easy. We cannot accomplish our goal with one single effort, nor can we realize our dream overnight. Every accomplishment in the world is hard-won. The more beautiful the future, the harder we must work for it.

Hard work will overcome difficulties and make one’s dream come true. We should endeavor to foster throughout society the work ethic of being down-to-earth and diligent. Leading officials at all levels should foster the ethos of model workers. They should pursue realistic policies, boost morale and handle things in a pragmatic way. They should not be pretentious or just pursue image-building accomplishments, and they should firmly oppose formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, which both government officials and the public detest. They should lead the people by example and deliver a good performance in all their work.

I firmly believe that under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee and with the concerted efforts of the Chinese working class and all other workers and the people of all ethnic groups in China, we can certainly create an even brighter future and realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

Realize Youthful Dreams

May 4, 2013 Part of the speech to outstanding young representatives from all walks of life.

The 18th CPC National Congress put forward a master blueprint for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and accelerating socialist modernization, and it issued a call for achieving the Two Centenary Goals. We made clear our desire to realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in accordance with the guiding principles of the Congress. At present, all are discussing the Chinese Dream and thinking about how it relates to them and what they need to do to realize it.

- The Chinese Dream pertains to the past and the present, but also the future. It is the crystallization of the tireless efforts of countless people with lofty ideals, embraces the yearnings of all the sons and daughters of the Chinese nation, and reveals the prospect of a bright future, when our country will be prosperous and strong, the nation will be rejuvenated, and the people will enjoy a happy life.

- The Chinese Dream is the dream of the country and the nation, but also of every ordinary Chinese. One can do well only when one’s country and nation do well. Only if everyone strives for a better tomorrow can our efforts be aggregated into a powerful force to realize the Chinese Dream.

- The Chinese Dream is ours, but also yours, the younger generation. The great renewal of the Chinese nation will eventually become a reality in the course of the successive efforts of the youth.

During all periods of revolution, construction and reform, the Party has always valued, cared about and trusted young people, and placed great expectations on the younger generations. The Party believes that young people represent the future of our country and the hope of our nation, regards them as a vital contingent for the cause of the Party and the people, and always encourages them to realize their ideals in the great struggle of the people.

Today, we are closer than at any time in history to attaining the goal of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and we have greater confidence in and capability for achieving this goal than ever before. “The last one tenth of the journey demands half the effort.” The closer we are to achieving the goal of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the more we should redouble our efforts and not slacken our pace, and the more we must mobilize all young people to this end.

Looking ahead, we can see that our younger generation has a promising future, and will accomplish much. It is a law of history that “the waves of the Yangtze River from behind drive on those ahead,” and it is the responsibility of young people to surpass their elders. Young people need to boldly assume the heavy responsibilities that the times impose on you, aim high, be practical and realistic, and put your youthful dreams into action in the course of realizing the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

First, young people must be firm in your ideals and convictions. “One must both have great ambition and make tireless efforts to achieve great exploits.” Ideals provide direction in life, and convictions determine the success of a cause. Without ideals and convictions one’s spirit becomes weak. The Chinese Dream is the common ideal of the people of all ethnic groups, and a lofty ideal that young people should harbor. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is the correct path for leading the people in realizing the Chinese Dream that the Party articulated after untold hardships, and all young people should firmly adopt it as a guideline for your lives.

Young people should guide your actions with Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development; base your ideals and convictions on the rational recognition and acceptance of scientific theories, on a correct understanding of the laws of history, and on an accurate understanding of the basic national conditions; keep enhancing your confidence in the Chinese path, theories and system; have more faith in the Party’s leadership; and always follow the Party in upholding Chinese socialism.

Second, young people must have professional competence. Learning is necessary for growth and progress, while practice is the way to improve competence. The qualities and competence of young people will have a direct influence on the course of realizing the Chinese Dream. There is an ancient Chinese saying, “Learning is the bow, while competence is the arrow.” This means that the foundation of learning is like a bow, while competence is like an arrow; only with rich knowledge can one give full play to one’s competence. Young people are in the prime time of learning. You should regard learning as a top priority, a responsibility, a moral support and a lifestyle. You should establish a conviction that dreams start from learning and career success depends on competence. You should make assiduous learning a driving force and competence building a resource for your youthful endeavors.

Young people must orient yourselves to modernization, the world and the future, have a sense of urgency in updating your knowledge, study with great eagerness, lay a good foundation of basic knowledge while updating it promptly, assiduously study theories while enthusiastically developing skills, and constantly enhance your competence and capabilities to meet the development needs of our times and the requirements of our undertaking. Young people must apply what you have learned, stay close to the grassroots and the populace, and, in the great furnace of the reform and opening up and socialist modernization, and in the great school of society, acquire true skills and genuine knowledge, improve competence, and make yourselves capable personnel who can shoulder important social responsibilities.

Third, young people must dare to innovate and create. Innovation is the soul driving a nation’s progress and an inexhaustible source of a country’s prosperity. It is also an essential part of the Chinese national character. This is what Confucius meant when he said, “If you can in one day renovate yourself, do so from day to day. Yea, let there be daily renovation.” Life never favors those who follow the beaten track and are satisfied with the status quo, and it never waits for the unambitious and those who sit idle and enjoy the fruits of others’ work. Instead, it provides more opportunities for those who have the ability and courage to innovate. Young people are the most dynamic and most creative group of our society, and should stand in the forefront of innovation and creation.

Young people should dare to be the first, boldly free their minds and progress with the times, dare to seek high and low for a way to forge ahead, and be ambitious to learn from and then surpass the older generation. With your youthful energy, you can create a country of youth and a nation of youth. Young people should have the willpower to cut paths through mountains and build bridges over rivers, and be indomitable and advance bravely in bringing forth new ideas. You should have a pragmatic attitude that pursues truth, so you can constantly accumulate experience and achieve results in the course of bringing forth new ideas in your chosen occupations.

Fourth, young people must be devoted to hard work. “The sharpness of a sword results from repeated grinding, while the fragrance of plum blossoms comes from frigid weather.” Human ideals are not easy to achieve, but need hard work. From poverty to prosperity, and from weakness to strength, China has been able to progress step by step over centuries thanks to the tenacity of one generation after another, and to the nation’s spirit of constant self-improvement through hard work. Currently we are facing important opportunities for development, but we are also facing unprecedented difficulties and challenges. The dream stretches out before us and the road lies at our feet. Those who overcome their weaknesses are powerful, and those who keep improving themselves come out victors. If we are to achieve our development goals, young people must work long and hard without letup.

Young people must bear in mind that “empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish” and put this into practice. You must work hard at your own posts, start from trivial things, and create your own splendid life with hard work, outstanding performances and remarkable achievements. Young people must never fear difficulties, but try to overcome them; you should go to the grassroots with tough conditions and the frontline for national construction and project development to temper yourselves and enhance your capabilities. Young people must have the courage and determination to start up businesses and do pioneering work, try to blaze new trails and start new endeavors in reform and opening up, and constantly create new prospects for their career development.

Fifth, young people must temper your character. Socialism with Chinese characteristics is a form of socialism in which material and cultural progresses go hand in hand. It is difficult for a nation without inner strength to be self-reliant, and a cause that lacks a cultural buttress cannot be sustained for long. Young people are a social force that leads the social ethos. The cultural attainment of a nation is represented mostly by the morality and mental outlook of the younger generation.

Young people must integrate correct moral cognition, conscious moral development and active moral practice, conscientiously establish and practice the core socialist values, and take the lead in advocating good social conduct. Young people must strengthen theoretical improvement and moral cultivation, take the initiative to carry forward patriotism, collectivism and socialism, and actively advocate social and professional ethics, and family virtues. Young people should bear in mind that “virtue uplifts, while vice debases” and always be optimists and persons of integrity who have a healthy lifestyle. Young people should advocate new social trends, be the first in learning from Lei Feng, take an active part in voluntary work, shoulder social responsibilities, care for others, help the poor, the weak and the disabled, and do other good and practical deeds, so as to promote social progress with their actions.

The theme of the Chinese youth movement today is to strive to realize the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Chinese Communist Youth League should carry out extensive educational and practical activities with the theme of “My Chinese Dream” for young Chinese. It should sow the seeds of and ignite the dreams of each youth so that more young people dare to dream and pursue their dreams. In this way all young people can increase their youthful energy to realize the Chinese Dream. The League should lay a solid intellectual basis for all young Chinese with the Chinese Dream, and educate and help them to establish a correct world view, outlook on life and sense of values, always love our country, our people and our nation, and firmly follow the Party along the Chinese path. The League should inspire young people’s sense of historical responsibility through the Chinese Dream, carry forward the fine tradition of “the League taking action upon the Party’s call,” combine its work with Party and government work, and organize and mobilize young people to support reform, promote development and maintain stability. The League must actively offer services for young people in pursuing their dreams, effectively improve its practice, get close to young people at the primary level, address their concerns and pressing needs, represent and protect the common interests and needs of the young people, and try to build a favorable environment for their growth and development.

Role models from among the youngsters are good examples for young people to learn from; they shoulder more social responsibilities and public expectations, and play a strong exemplary and leading role among young people, and even in society as a whole. I hope these role models will make persistent efforts, be strict with themselves, be determined to go ahead, and set a good example to all young people with their personal development, moral pursuit and exemplary action.

A country prospers if its youth is thriving; a country is strong if its youth is robust. Ever since its founding in 1921 the Party has represented, drawn over and relied on young Chinese people. Party committees and governments at all levels must fully trust in, care for and be strict with young people; give a wider scope for their thoughts, build a larger stage for their practice and innovation, provide more opportunities for the pursuit of their life goals, and create more favorable conditions for their career development. Officials at all levels must pay attention to young people’s aspirations, help them to grow, support them to start their own businesses, become their bosom friends, and show enthusiasm for youth work.

Everybody is young once in their life. Now is the time for you to make the most of your youth; and the future is a time for you to look back on it. The path of life is sometimes level, sometimes steep; sometimes smooth, sometimes rough; sometimes straight, sometimes crooked. Young people are faced with a wide range of choices. But what is important for you is to be guided by a correct world view, outlook on life and sense of values when you are making your choices. The life experiences of countless successful people suggest that young people who choose to endure hardships will be duly rewarded, and those who make contributions to society are the ones who deserve respect. Tribulations, setbacks and tests have proved to be good for young people in their later life. You need to have strength of character to be undaunted when confronting good or bad fortune, have a firm will to keep pressing forward in spite of repeated setbacks, remain optimistic in all circumstances, turn your failures into a driving force, and learn from your experiences, so that your life is raised to a higher plane. In short, the only way you can have fond memories of a well-spent, warm and lasting youth with no regrets is to work enthusiastically and energetically, tenaciously overcome all obstacles, and make a contribution to the people while you are still young.

I firmly believe that if the people of all ethnic groups unite under the Party’s leadership, stand on solid ground and forge ahead with a pioneering spirit, we can certainly build a prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious modern socialist country by the middle of this century. And all our young people will surely witness and share in the realization of the Chinese Dream along with the people of all ethnic groups.

The Chinese Dream Will Benefit Not Only the People of China, But Also of Other Countries

May 2013 Part of the answers in a written interview with reporters from Trinidad and Tobago, Costa Rica and Mexico.

The Chinese nation has emerged resilient from trials and tribulations, and it never gave up the pursuit of its beautiful dreams. Realizing the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has been a long-cherished wish of the Chinese people since the advent of modern times.

In this new historical period, the essence of the Chinese Dream is to make our country prosperous and strong, revitalize the nation and make the people live better lives. Our objectives are to double the 2010 GDP and per capita income of urban and rural residents, and complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. By mid-century, we aim to build China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious, and realize the Chinese Dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation.

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must adhere to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We have followed this path for over 30 years, and history has shown us that this is the correct path that suits China’s national conditions, a path that makes the people rich and the country strong. We will firmly continue along this path.

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must carry forward the Chinese spirit. We need to use the national spirit of patriotism and spirit of the times centered on reform and innovation to bring forth the vigor and vitality of the whole nation.

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must build up cohesive strength. Empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish. We need to use the wisdom and strength of our country’s 1.3 billion people to build a strong China and a prosperous nation with the constant efforts of the Chinese people for generations to come.

To realize the Chinese Dream, we must pursue peaceful development. We will always follow the path of peaceful development and pursue an opening-up strategy that brings mutual benefits. We will concentrate both on China’s development and on our responsibilities and contributions to the world as a whole. We will bring benefits to both the Chinese people and the people of the rest of the world. The realization of the Chinese Dream will bring the world peace, not turmoil, opportunities, not threats.

Although there is a vast ocean between China and Latin America, we are connected heart and soul. We are bound together not only by profound traditional friendship and close interests, but also by our common pursuit of beautiful dreams.

In recent years Latin American and Caribbean countries have made steady progress in achieving common development through joint efforts. The establishment of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States fully testifies to the vigorous efforts made by Latin America and the countries of the Caribbean to realize the dream of unity, coordination and common development championed by the pioneers of the Latin American and Caribbean independence movements.

China is ready to work with Latin American and Caribbean countries hand in hand, supporting one another and cooperating sincerely on the path to realizing the great dream of development and prosperity.

Right Time to Innovate and Make Dreams Come True

October 21, 2013 Part of the speech at the centenary celebration of the Western Returned Scholars Association.

Completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, accelerating socialist modernization and achieving China’s great rejuvenation, this is a glorious cause with a bright and splendid future. All people who are dedicated to this worthy cause can expect to accomplish great deeds. With hundreds of millions of fellow Chinese marching in their ranks, the Chinese students and scholars studying abroad are deciding that this is the right time to innovate and make their life-long dreams come true. You are called upon to integrate your patriotic love, your aspiration to make the country strong and your actions to serve it, and link your dreams with the stupendous efforts of your fellow countrymen to turn the Chinese Dream into reality, and by doing so have your names recorded in the annals of China’s great renewal.

Here I would like to propose four points as my hope for Chinese students and scholars studying abroad.

First, I hope you will adhere to patriotism. China’s history stretches over thousands of years, and patriotism has always been a stirring theme and a powerful force inspiring the Chinese of all ethnic groups to carry on and excel. No matter how long the shadow it may cast, the tree strikes deep roots in soil forever. No matter where they are, Chinese students should always keep the home country and its people in their hearts. Qian Xuesen once said, “As a Chinese scientist, I live to serve the people. I hope the people are satisfied with the work I have done in my lifetime. Their approval will be my highest reward.”

I hope that you will carry forward the glorious tradition of studying hard to serve the country and be defenders and messengers of patriotism, always bearing in mind the ideal of “being the first to worry about the affairs of the state and the last to enjoy oneself,” always taking the well-being of the country, the nation and the people as the goal of your endeavors, and willingly associating the fruits of personal success with the evergreen tree of patriotism. The Party and the country respect the choice you make. If you decide to return, we will welcome you with open arms. If you decide to stay abroad, we will support you in serving the country in various ways. All of you should remember that wherever you are you are a member of the Chinese family; the country and the people back home always care about their sons and daughters, and your homeland is always a warm spiritual land for you.

Second, I hope you will study hard. Learning is a lasting theme for one to conduct oneself in life and society. It is also an important basis for one to serve one’s country and people. A dream starts with learning, and careers with practice. In the world today, knowledge and information are quickly updated, and if one slackens even a little in study, one is likely to fall behind. Some say that the world is a circle for everyone, with the amount of knowledge as the radius. He who has a bigger radius has a broader scope to act within.

I hope that you will orient yourselves to modernization, to the whole world and to the future, and aim to broaden your knowledge in advanced knowhow, technologies and management expertise. You should keep the perseverance and diligence in reading as related in stories of Confucius, Sun Jing and Su Qin, Kuang Hong, and Che Yin and Sun Kangdi. You should learn by reading and from other people’s practical experiences with equal devotion, temper your moral character, and make yourselves competent and well-versed in genuine skills. Those who have completed their study programs need to broaden their horizon, renew their knowledge promptly, improve their knowledge structure, and make themselves outstanding talented people capable of assuming heavy responsibilities and accomplishing great deeds.

Third, I hope you will be more innovative and creative. Innovation is the soul of a nation’s progress, the inexhaustible force enhancing a country’s prosperity, and indeed the profound endowment of the Chinese nation. Against the backdrop of international competition, only those who innovate can make progress, grow stronger and prevail. Students and scholars studying abroad have a broad vision, and they ought to take the lead in making innovations. China’s reform, opening-up and modernization drive provide all ambitious pioneers of innovation with a wide stage for success.

I hope you will throw yourselves into extensive efforts of innovation and creation, and dare to lead the way forward with vision, courage and stamina, so that you can succeed in making breakthroughs and achievements. Trying to accomplish something in China, one must set oneself firmly on the soil of the home country, keep in mind the expectations of the people, correctly identify the point where one’s professional strength and the needs of social development converge and where advanced knowledge and China’s conditions meet. Only in this way can innovation and creativity succeed and deliver real benefits.

Fourth, I hope you will work for dynamic exchanges with other countries. China cannot develop without the rest of the world; nor can the world as a whole prosper without China. We must open still wider to the outside world, strengthening our connectivity and interaction with it, and enhancing our understanding and friendship with other peoples. Growing up in China and living overseas extensively, you have been steeped in inter-personal relationships and cross-cultural communications. Many foreigners have got to know China through you while many Chinese have learned about the outside world also through you.

I hope you will make full use of your advantages to strengthen connections and exchanges between China and other countries, acting as unofficial ambassadors to promote people-to-people friendship, and explaining China’s culture, history and points of view in such a way that the people from other countries can understand and identify with China, and be ready to give it greater appreciation and support.

Founded 100 years ago when the survival of the nation was at stake, the Western Returned Scholars Association practiced patriotism by organizing its members to participate in patriotic and democratic movements and join the cause for national salvation and people’s liberation, thus becoming a famous patriotic association for democracy and science at that time. After the People’s Republic was founded in 1949, the Association became a progressive association under the leadership of the Party and government by vigorously encouraging the return of Chinese students abroad. Since the beginning of China’s reform and opening up, the Association has energetically carried out the “serve the country program,” making itself a people’s organization dedicated to socialism with Chinese characteristics. In 2003, with approval from the central authorities, the Association was given an additional name - the Chinese Overseas-educated Scholars Association - with its scope of operation expanded to cover the entire country and its members spreading all over the world. Its influence as a people’s organization has thus become more extensive.

Facing a new situation and new tasks, the Western Returned Scholars Association and Chinese Overseas-educated Scholars Association must give full play to its advantages as a people’s organization and united front with prominent intellectuals as its members, based in China while reaching out overseas to turn itself into a talent pool in the service of the country, a think tank of good ideas and proposals and a vital force in people-to-people diplomacy; and strive to become a bridge between the Party and the overseas students and scholars, an assistant in the work of the Party and government towards them, and a warm home to rally overseas students and scholars closely around the Party. The Association should care for the work, study and life of overseas Chinese students and scholars, reflect their wishes and views, protect their lawful rights and interests, and constantly enhance the Association’s appeal and cohesion.

“Exaltation of the virtuous is fundamental to governance.” Party committees and governments at all levels must earnestly implement Party and government policies concerning students and scholars studying abroad, and train more effectively and on a larger scale all kinds of talented people badly needed by our reform, opening up and modernization. When the environment is sound, talented people will gather, and our cause will thrive; but when it is not, they will go their separate ways, and our cause will fail. We must improve our working mechanisms, and enhance the awareness of service, strengthen education and guidance, build more platforms of innovation, be good at finding, uniting with and using talented people, and help bring forth people of high caliber by creating an environment favorable for the students to return and serve China, and in general to realize their potential. We should support the Association in its work by strengthening its organization, improving its working apparatus and personnel, and providing the necessary conditions for its operation.

In the course of its development and opening up, China needs still more overseas talented people and welcomes their arrival with open arms. Empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish. We are convinced that as long as students and scholars studying abroad remember this and choose to stand and work with the people, they will surely write a brilliant page in the book of the Chinese Dream, a page that is worthy of our times, of our people and of history.

The Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation Is a Dream Shared by All Chinese

June 6, 2014 Main points of the speech to representatives attending the Seventh Conference of Friendship of Overseas Chinese Associations.

For Chinese people both at home and abroad, a united Chinese nation is our shared root, the profound Chinese culture is our shared soul, and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is our shared dream. The shared root fosters eternal brotherhood, the shared soul links our hearts, and the shared dream holds us all together - we will go on to write a new chapter in the history of the Chinese nation.

We Chinese often say, “Your eyes brim with tears when you encounter a fellow townsman in a distant land.” It makes me feel at home to meet you today. On behalf of the CPC and the State Council, I would like to extend my congratulations to the convening of the Seventh Conference of Friendship of Overseas Chinese Associations, my warm welcome to overseas Chinese attending the conference, and my sincere greetings to overseas Chinese all over the world.

The tens of millions of overseas Chinese across the world are all members of the Chinese family. In the best of Chinese traditions, generations of overseas Chinese never forget their home country, their origins, or the blood of the Chinese nation flowing in their veins. They have given their enthusiastic support to China’s revolution, construction and reform. They have made a major contribution to the growth of the Chinese nation, to the peaceful reunification of the motherland, and to the friendly people-to-people cooperation between China and other countries. Their contribution will always be remembered.

At present, the Chinese people are striving to realize the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream of the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Overseas Chinese will play an essential role in this process. The Chinese Dream is a dream of the country, the nation as well as all Chinese individuals. With a strong sense of patriotism, economic strength, rich intellectual resources, and extensive business connections, overseas Chinese constitute a major force for realizing the Chinese Dream. As long as all Chinese both at home and abroad unite as one and contribute whatever they can, be it strength or intelligence, they can marshal great power for realizing this dream.

Chinese civilization, with a history going back more than 5,000 years, provides strong intellectual support for the country’s ceaseless self-improvement and growth. No matter where a Chinese is, he always bears the distinctive brand of the Chinese culture, which is the common heritage of all the sons and daughters of China. I hope all Chinese will continue to carry forward Chinese culture and draw strength from it, while promoting exchanges between Chinese civilization and other civilizations. Let us tell the stories of China well, and make our voices heard; let us promote mutual understanding between the people of our own country and those of other lands, and create a better environment for achieving the Chinese Dream.

The Chinese Dream is a desire for happiness, similar to the dreams of the people of other countries. The people can attain happiness only when their country and nation thrive. China will thrive only when the world prospers. China provides positive energy for world prosperity and development by holding to the path of peaceful development. Overseas Chinese should take full advantage of their strengths and their circumstances to serve as a bridge for wide-ranging exchanges and cooperation between China and their new home countries. They should better integrate themselves into their local communities and contribute to world peace and development.

All-round and Deeper-level Reform

Reform and Opening up Is Always Ongoing and Will Never End

December 31, 2012 Main points of the speech at the second group study session of the Political Bureau of the 18th CPC Central Committee which Xi presided over.

Reform and opening up is a long-term and arduous cause, and people need to work on it generation after generation. We should carry out reform to improve the socialist market economy of China, and adhere to the basic state policy of opening up to the outside world. We must further reform in key sectors with greater political courage and vision, and forge ahead steadily in the direction determined by the Party’s 18th National Congress.

The past, the present, and the future are all interconnected. History is about the past, while the present is the history of the future. To implement the major propositions on reform and opening up raised at the 18th National Congress, we need to review reform and opening up, better understand its historical necessity, conscientiously master its laws, and firmly assume the responsibility of extending it.

We must review and apply the useful experience we have gained in reform and opening up.

First, reform and opening up is an in-depth revolution, and we must follow the correct direction and stay on the correct path. Regarding the issue of direction, we must keep a cool head. Our direction is to continuously promote the self-improvement and development of the socialist system, and stride forward with resolve on the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Second, reform and opening up is a cause that has never before been pursued. We must adopt the right methods and advance this cause through continuous exploration and practice. Wading across the river by feeling for the stones is a reform method with Chinese characteristics and in line with the prevailing conditions in China. Wading across the river by feeling for the stones, we can identify the laws that apply, and acquire knowledge in practice. Wading across the river by feeling for the stones and top-level design are two component factors for our reform effort. Reform and opening up in a region at a certain stage should be subject to top-level design; top-level design should be strengthened on the basis of progressive reform and opening up in the region at a certain stage. To continue reform and opening up, we need to strengthen our macroscopic thinking and top-level design, and make sure that reform is systematic, integrated and coordinated. At the same time, we must still encourage bold experiments and breakthroughs.

Third, reform and opening up is a systematic project, which should be pushed forward in an all-round way with all kinds of reforms well coordinated. Reform and opening up is an in-depth and all-round social transformation. Every reform will have great impact on other reforms, and all reforms support each other and interact positively. We will promote both all-round progress and breakthroughs at key points, and form a strong force for the further advance of reform and opening up.

Fourth, stability is a prerequisite for reform and development. We must make sure that reform, development and stability proceed in tandem. Social stability makes it possible for us to carry out reform and development which in turn provide a solid foundation for social stability. We should take into full consideration the momentum of reform, the speed of development, and the capacity of the general public to sustain change. And improvement of the people’s well-being should be regarded as an important link in balancing reform, development and stability.

Fifth, reform and opening up is a cause of the Chinese people. We must respect the people’s pioneering spirit and advance this cause under the leadership of the Party. Every breakthrough and step forward in theory and practice that we make in this cause comes from the experience and wisdom of the people, so does every new thing we bring into being and develop, and every experience we gain. The more arduous the task of balancing reform, development and stability, the more we need to strengthen and improve the Party’s leadership and maintain close ties between the Party and the people. We should be adept in formulating and implementing sound guidelines and policies and use them to direct the people forward, and be good at improving our policies through the work and experience of the people and their demands for development. We must ensure that more fruits of reform and development are shared by the people in a fairer way, and secure solid popular support for continuing reform and opening up.

Reform and opening up is always an ongoing task and will never end. Without reform and opening up, China would not be what it is today, nor would it have the prospects for a brighter future. Problems occurring in reform and opening up can only be solved through reform and opening up. To advance reform and opening up, we must carry out the guidelines of the 18th National Congress, and follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. In response to the call of the people and their expectations for further reform and opening up, we should build a social consensus, and promote reforms in all sectors in a coordinated way.

Explanatory Notes to the “Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Continuing the Reform”

November 9, 2013 Explanatory notes made to the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee.

On behalf of the Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee, I will now explain to the plenary session the “Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Continuing the Reform.”

I. The Drafting Process of the Decision

Since the reform and opening-up initiative was introduced in 1978 the third plenary sessions of past CPC central committees have provided the public with important information for judging the governance policy and focus of the new generations of Party leadership. The discussion topics, decisions made, measures to take, and signals released bore great significance for the Party’s work in the five to ten years following the plenary sessions.

After the Party’s 18th National Congress, the Central Committee set out to determine the topics for discussion at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. The 18th National Congress set the goal of completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and continuing reform and opening up, and emphasized that the Party must, with greater political courage and wisdom, lose no time in continuing the reform in key sectors, and resolutely discard all notions and systems that hinder efforts to pursue sustainable development. It also pointed out that the Party should set up a well-developed, standardized and effective framework of systems, and ensure that operating institutions in all sectors are fully functioning. To achieve the strategic goals and carry out the plans set at the 18th National Congress, we must lose no time in promoting reform comprehensively.

Thirty-five years have passed since the Party made the historic decision of shifting the focus of the work of the Party and state to economic development and initiating the reform and opening-up drive at the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee. The propelling force behind the improvement of the Chinese people’s life, the advancement of our socialist country, the progress of our Party, and the fact that China has gained important international status is no other than our perseverance in carrying forward the reform and opening-up drive.

During his inspection tour of the South in 1992, Deng Xiaoping said, “If we did not adhere to socialism, implement the policy of reform and opening to the outside world, develop the economy and raise living standards, we would find ourselves in a blind alley.” Today, in retrospect, we have a better understanding of his remarks. This is why, as we are well aware, only socialism can save China, and only reform and opening up can develop China, socialism and Marxism.

In light of the historical lessons we have learned and the needs of the current times, the Party Central Committee has been repeatedly stressing since its 18th National Congress that reform and opening up plays the decisive role in determining the destiny of contemporary China. It is also the key to realizing the Two Centenary Goals and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. There are no bounds to practice and development, to freeing the people’s minds, or to the reform and opening-up effort. We will reach an impasse if we stall or go into reverse on our path; reform and opening up is always ongoing and will never end. Facing the new situation and new tasks, we must continue the reform comprehensively to strive for solutions to the major problems challenging China’s development, and work tirelessly to promote the improvement and progress of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

As extensive and profound changes are taking place domestically and internationally, China’s development faces a series of prominent dilemmas and challenges, and there are quite a number of problems and difficulties on its path of development: Unbalanced, uncoordinated and unsustainable development remains a big problem. We are weak in scientific and technological innovation. The industrial structure is unbalanced and the growth mode remains inefficient. The development gap between urban and rural areas and between regions is still large, and so are income disparities. Social problems are markedly on the rise. There are many problems affecting the people’s immediate interests in education, employment, social security, health care, housing, the ecological environment, food and drug safety, workplace safety, public security, law enforcement, administration of justice, etc. Some people still lead hard lives. Formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance are serious problems. Some sectors are prone to corruption and other types of misconduct, and the fight against corruption remains a serious challenge for us. To solve these problems, the key lies in continuing the reform.

In April this year, after deep thinking and research, and after soliciting opinions extensively both inside and outside the Party, the CPC Central Committee’s Political Bureau decided that continuing the reform comprehensively would be the central topic for discussion at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee and that the session would come up with a decision.

On April 20 the CPC Central Committee issued the “Notice on Soliciting Opinions on Continuing the Reform Comprehensively for Discussion at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee.” It was unanimously agreed by all regions and departments that by selecting this topic for discussion at the session, the Party answered the calls of the Party members, officials and common people in an effort to address the issues that are of most concern to the whole of society. The public showed widespread support for the decision.

All the third plenary sessions of the CPC Central Committees convened since the reform and opening-up initiative was introduced in 1978 have focused on the discussion of how to continue the reform, sending an important signal that our Party will unswervingly uphold reform and opening up, and firmly adhere to the theories, guidelines and policies put forth since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Party Central Committee. In a word, it is to answer the question of what banner to hold and what path to take in the new historical conditions.

Continuing the reform comprehensively as the central topic at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee was an important proclamation made by our Party, which well reflects the CPC’s adherence to the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important thought of the Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development. In the new conditions, the Party is unswervingly implementing its basic guidelines and political program, learning from its past experiences and meeting its fundamental requirements, and firmly upholding reform and opening up.

After the topic was decided upon, the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee set up a drafting group for the Decision of the plenary session. I served as the head of the group, with Liu Yunshan and Zhang Gaoli as deputy heads. Persons in charge of related departments and leaders of some provinces and municipalities also took part. The drafting work was overseen by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee.

Over a period of about seven months following its founding, the drafting group extensively solicited opinions, carried out appraisals of important topics, conducted investigations and researches, and held discussions and revised the document many times. During this period, three meetings of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and two meetings of the Political Bureau were held to review the draft Decision. The draft was also circulated among a certain number of Party members and retired Party officials for their suggestions. Opinions were also heard from the central committees of other political parties, heads of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce and individuals with no party affiliation.

The feedback showed that all consulted groups and individuals had reached the consensus that the Decision offers an in-depth analysis of the key issues challenging China’s reform, development and stability both in theory and practice, and expounds on the significance of continuing the reform comprehensively and the future of our reform. It sets forth the guidelines for continuing the reform comprehensively, as well as the goals, tasks and underlying principles; it delineates a new blueprint for the reform effort, and envisions the new targets with vigor; it includes the new thoughts, judgments and measures for continuing the reform comprehensively, and reflects the calls, appeals and aspirations of society; and it epitomizes the Party’s and the general public’s political consensus and wisdom in action to continue the reform comprehensively.

A consensus was reached among all groups and individuals that the Decision lays out a balanced plan for the strategic key areas in continuing the reform comprehensively, with prioritized goals and focal points. It also introduces the working mechanism, methods of implementation, and the timetable and road map for the reform plan, making a series of major breakthroughs in the theories and policies guiding the reform effort. It once again makes overall plans for continuing the reform comprehensively, serving as a general mobilization for the nation to take action. The Decision is bound to exert a significant and far-reaching influence on the development of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics.

In the course of soliciting opinions, people from all sides offered many valuable ideas and suggestions. With careful study and discussion of these ideas and suggestions within the drafting group, as instructed by the Party Central Committee, important revisions were made to the Decision.

II. The General Framework and Key Issues of the Decision

The Political Bureau of the Party Central Committee believes that, facing the new situation with new tasks and new requirements, China must take comprehensive measures to continue its reform. To do this, the key lies in further developing an environment for fair competition, further invigorating economic and social growth, further enhancing the efficiency of the government, further achieving social equality and justice, further promoting social harmony and stability, and further improving the Party’s leadership and governance.

To carry out these resolutions, it must be stressed that we should be fully aware of our problems, focus on the key issues for further study and research, and strive to solve the major dilemmas and problems challenging our development. As the CPC has fought its way through revolution, construction and reform, its sole aim has always been to solve the problems of China. It is fair to say that existing problems force us to reform, and reforms are going deeper while problems being tackled and solved.

In the past 35 years we have overcome many problems hindering the development of the Party and the state through reform. But new problems always replace old ones during our course of exploration and transformation. This is why our system needs to be constantly improved, why reform cannot be accomplished in one stroke and why we cannot rest on our laurels indefinitely once existing problems are solved.

The draft Decision stressed five major considerations. One, it had to meet the new requirements for the development of the Party and state, and carry out the strategic task of continuing the reform comprehensively, as set forth at the Party’s 18th National Congress. Two, it had to center on reform and foreground the new measures for continuing it comprehensively, leaving out general and repetitive measures and measures solely for enhancing development. Three, it had to address the key issues, properly deal with the pressing concerns of the people, respond to their calls and aspirations, focus on important areas and crucial segments, and highlight the leading role of the reform of the economic system in promoting development. Four, it had to take an active yet discreet attitude when designing the reform measures. Five, it had to plan the tasks according to the timetable, which set forth that by 2020 decisive results would have been achieved in the reform of important areas and crucial segments.

The plenary session set as the framework of the Decision the important issues that China needs to deal with, and arranged the Decision according to its various points. In addition to the Foreword and Conclusion, there are 16 parts divided into three main sections. The first part is also the first section and the General Remarks, which mainly elaborates on the significance, guiding thoughts and overall direction of continuing the reform comprehensively. Section two consists of Parts 2-15, introducing the arrangement of the main tasks and important measures for continuing the reform in six aspects - the economy, politics, culture, society, ecology and national defense/armed forces. The different aspects are arranged as follows: The economy from Part 2 to Part 7, politics from Part 8 to Part 10, culture in Part 11, society from Part 12 to Part 13, ecology in Part 14, and national defense/armed forces in Part 15. Part 16 composes the third section, Organizational Leadership, which mainly elaborates on strengthening and improving the Party’s leadership in the course of continuing the reform comprehensively.

Here, I would like to explain the considerations of the CPC Central Committee on the major issues and key measures mentioned in the Decision of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee.

First, allowing the market to play the decisive role in allocating resources and letting the government perform its functions better. This is a major theoretical proposition in the Decision, because the reform of the economic system is still the focus of continuing the reform comprehensively, and the appropriate handling of the relationship between the government and the market is still the core issue of the reform of the economic system.

In 1992 the Party’s 14th National Congress stipulated that China’s economic reform aimed at establishing a socialist market economy, allowing the market to play a basic role in allocating resources under state macro control. This key breakthrough in theory played an extremely important role in guiding China’s reform and opening-up effort, and its economic and social development. It also illustrated that theoretical innovation paves the way for innovation in practice. To comprehensively continue the reform we must renew our theory first.

After 20 years of practice a socialist market economy has been basically established in China. But there are still many problems. The market lacks order, and many people seek economic benefits through unjustified means; the market for factors of production lags behind in development, unable to allocate the factors of production to meet the effective demand; the lack of unified market rules has resulted in rampant protectionism initiated by departments or local governments; and market competition is not good enough to select the superior and eliminate the inferior, and thus slows down economic restructuring. If left unsolved, these problems will hinder the development of a sound socialist market economy.

Over the past two decades since the Party’s 14th National Congress we have kept searching for a new positioning for the relationship between the government and the market through practice and theoretical research. The Party’s 15th National Congress proposed that “the market plays a basic role in allocating resources under state macro control,” the Party’s 16th National Congress proposed to “give fuller play to the basic role of the market in allocating resources,” the Party’s 17th National Congress sought to “introduce institutions to give better play to the basic role of the market in allocating resources,” and the Party’s 18th National Congress stipulated that the Party should “leverage to a greater extent and in a wider scope the basic role of the market in allocating resources.” From the above progression it can be seen that we have been constantly deepening our understanding of the government-market relationship.

During the discussion and consultation sessions regarding the Decision, many people suggested that the Party should further define the government-market relationship from a theoretical perspective, which would have great significance for continuing the reform comprehensively. With due consideration to these opinions and the current circumstances, and after much discussion and research, the Party Central Committee agreed that it was time to introduce a new theoretical expression concerning this matter, and that the “basic role” of the market in allocating resources should be revised to a “decisive role.”

We have now basically established a socialist market economy in our country, with considerable improvement in the degree of marketization. We have gained better knowledge of the market rules and enhanced our capacity to use it to our benefit, and have improved the macro-control system. With both the subjective and objective conditions in place, we should take a new step forward to improve our socialist market economy.

To further balance the relationship between the government and the market we need to decide which of the two is to play the decisive role in allocating resources. To boost the economy we must enhance the efficiency of the allocation of resources, especially that of scarce resources, so that we can use fewer resources to make more products and gain more benefits. Both theory and practice have proved that the allocation of resources by the market is the most effective means to this end. It is a general rule of the market economy that the market decides the allocation of resources, and a market economy in essence is one in which the market determines resource allocation. We have to follow this rule when we improve the socialist market economy. We should work harder to address the problems of market imperfection, too much government interference and lack of oversight. Positioning the market as playing a “decisive role” in resource allocation is conducive to establishing the correct notion of the government-market relationship in the whole Party and the whole of society, and conducive to transforming the economic growth pattern and government functions, as well as reining in corruption and other forms of misconduct.

Our market economy is socialist, of course. We need to give leverage to the superiority of our socialist system, and let the Party and government perform their positive functions. The market plays a decisive role in allocating resources, but is not the sole actor in this regard.

To develop the socialist market economy, leverage should be given to both the market and the government, with differentiated functions. The Decision put forth clear requirements for improving the functions of the government, emphasizing that scientific macro control and effective governance are the intrinsic requirements for giving more leverage to the advantages of the socialist market economy. The Decision also makes plans for improving macro control, correctly performing government functions in all areas, and improving the organization of government. It stresses that the main responsibility and role of the government is to maintain the stability of the macro economy, strengthen and improve public services, ensure fair competition, strengthen market oversight, maintain market order, promote sustainable development and common prosperity, and intervene in situations where market failure occurs.

Second, adhering to and improving the basic economic system. The basic economic system with public ownership playing a leading role and all forms of ownership growing side by side is an important pillar of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy in 1978 the structure of ownership has undergone gradual adjustment, with the weights of the public and non-public sectors changing in their contribution to the economy and employment. The economy and society have grown more vigorous during this process. In such conditions, how to better recognize the leading role of public ownership and stick to this position and how to further explore the effective forms for materializing the basic economic system have become major topics for us.

It is emphasized in the Decision that we must unswervingly consolidate and develop the public economy, persist in the leading role of public ownership, give full play to the leading role of the state-owned economy, and incessantly increase its vitality, leveraging power and impact.

Adhering to and furthering the relevant deliberations made since the Party’s 15th National Congress, the Decision proposes to vigorously develop the mixed-ownership economy. It stresses that such an economy, with cross-shareholding by and integration of state-owned capital, collective capital and non-public capital, is important to materialize the basic economic system of China. It will help to improve the functions of state-owned capital, maintain and increase its value and raise its competitiveness. It is an effective channel and inevitable choice for us to adhere to the leading role of public ownership and improve the vitality, leveraging power and impact of the state-owned economy in the new conditions.

The Decision states that China will improve the state assets management system, strengthen state assets oversight with capital management at the core, and reform the authorized operation mechanism for state capital. State-owned capital investment operations must serve the strategic goals of the state, invest more in key industries and areas that are vital to national security and are the lifeblood of the economy, focus on offering public services, develop important and future-oriented strategic industries, protect the ecological environment, support scientific and technological progress, and guarantee national security. The government will transfer part of the state-owned capital to social security funds. We will increase the proportion of state-owned capital gains that are turned over to the public finance, to be used to ensure and improve the people’s livelihood.

State-owned enterprises (SOEs) constitute an important force for advancing modernization and protecting the common interests of the people. Through many years of reform SOEs have by and large assimilated themselves into the market economy. At the same time, however, they have also found problems and drawbacks in their system, which call for further reform. The Decision proposes a series of targeted reform measures: We must ensure that state-owned capital increases its input into public-service-oriented enterprises; in natural monopoly industries in which state-owned capital continues to hold controlling interests, carry out a reform focusing on separation of government administration from enterprise management, separation of government administration from state assets management, franchise operation, and government oversight, separate network ownership from operation, and deregulate control over competitive businesses in light of the conditions of different industries; improve the corporate governance structure to ensure smooth operation and effective checks and balances; establish a system of professional managers, and give better play to the role of business executives; establish a long-term incentive-and-restraint mechanism, and strengthen investigations into the accountability of SOE operations and investment; and explore ways to publicize important information, including SOE financial budgets. Moreover, SOEs should appropriately increase the proportion of market-based recruitment, and properly determine and strictly regulate the salary level, post-related benefits and expenses as well as business spending of SOE managerial personnel. These measures will stimulate SOEs to improve the modern corporate system, enhance their operating efficiency, better fulfill their social obligations and play a better role in the economy.

We must adhere to the “two unswervinglys” in order to continue and improve our basic economic system. The Decision proposes reform measures on multiple levels to encourage, support and guide the development of the non-public sector of the economy, and to stimulate its vigor and creativity. On functional positioning, the Decision points out that both the public and non-public sectors are important components of the socialist market economy, and an important basis for China’s economic and social development. On the protection of property rights, the Decision points out that the property rights of both the public and non-public sectors are inviolable. On policy treatment, the Decision stresses equal rights, equal opportunities and identical rules, and a unified market access system. The Decision encourages non-public enterprises to participate in the reform of SOEs, encourages development of mixed-ownership enterprises in which private capital holds majority shares, and encourages qualified private enterprises to establish a modern corporate system. All these will contribute to the healthy development of the non-public sector of the economy.

Third, continuing the reform of the fiscal and taxation systems. Finance is the foundation and an important pillar of national governance. Good fiscal and taxation systems are the institutional guarantee for improving resource allocation, maintaining market unity, promoting social equity, and realizing enduring peace and stability. Developed on the basis of the tax distribution system reform initiated in 1994, the current fiscal and taxation systems have played an important role in increasing the government’s financial strength and promoting the rapid growth of the economy

As the situation changes, the current fiscal and taxation systems cannot effectively respond to the requirements for dividing powers between the central and local governments to improve national governance. They have lagged behind our effort to transform the economic growth pattern and promote the sustained and healthy development of the economy and society, and are causing problems that hinder economic and social development.

Reform of the fiscal and taxation systems is one of the key points in continuing the reform comprehensively. The reform mainly includes improvement of the budgeting and taxation systems, and establishment of a system in which authority of office matches responsibility for expenditure.

The Decision stipulates that we will adopt a complete, standardized, open and transparent budget system, and appropriately increase the authority of office and responsibility of expenditure of the central government, including those concerning national defense, foreign affairs, national security, and unified national market rules and management. The authority of office over some social security programs, and the construction and maintenance of major trans-regional projects will be shared by the central and local governments, and the authority of office will be gradually clarified in this regard. The central government can delegate some expenditure responsibilities to local governments through transfer payments. In terms of trans-regional public services with great impacts on other regions, the central government will shoulder some of the expenditure responsibilities of local governments through transfer payments.

The main aim of the reform is to clearly define authority of office, reform the taxation system, make tax burdens stable and budgets transparent, and increase efficiency. It also aims to accelerate the development of a modern fiscal system that is conducive to the transformation of the economic growth pattern, the establishment of a fair market under unified rules, and the promotion of equal access to basic public services; develop fiscal and taxation systems that are compatible with the financial resources and authority of office of the central and local governments; and mobilize the initiative of both the central and local governments.

Reform of the fiscal and taxation systems is a step-by-step process, and will take some time to complete. The Party Central Committee has clearly stated that we must maintain the stability of the current financial patterns of the central and local governments, and further rationalize the division of revenues between them.

Fourth, improving mechanisms and institutions for the integrated development of urban and rural areas. The unbalanced development between urban and rural areas is a serious problem hindering the development of our economy and society, a major problem we must solve in order to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and accelerate socialist modernization. Tremendous changes have taken place in China’s rural areas since the reform and opening-up policy was introduced in late 1978. However, the separate urban-rural structures have not changed fundamentally, and the widening gap between urban and rural development has not been reversed. To solve these problems, we must push forward the integrated development of urban and rural areas.

The Decision states that we must improve the mechanisms and institutions to form new relations between industry and agriculture and between urban and rural areas in which industry promotes agriculture, urban areas support rural development, agriculture and industry benefit each other, and there is integrated urban and rural development, so that the overwhelming majority of farmers can participate in the modernization process on an equal basis and share the fruits of modernization.

The Decision proposes reform measures to improve the mechanisms and institutions for the integrated development of urban and rural areas: One, accelerating the building of a new type of agricultural operation system. We will maintain the fundamental status of family operation in agriculture; encourage the transfer of contracted land-use right to big, specialized operators, family farms, farmers’ cooperatives and agrobusinesses; encourage rural areas to develop cooperative economies; encourage and guide industrial and commercial capital to invest in rural areas to develop modern planting and breeding industries suited to commercialized management; and allow farmers to develop industrialized operation of agriculture by becoming shareholders using their contracted land-use right, among other measures. Two, endowing farmers with more property rights. We will protect farmers’ contracted land-use right by law, safeguard the rights and interests of farmers as members of collective economic organizations, ensure rural households’ usufruct of their homesteads, and select several pilot areas to steadily and prudently push forward the mortgage, guarantee and transfer of farmers’ residential property rights. Three, promoting equal exchanges of factors of production and balanced allocation of public resources between urban and rural areas. We will ensure migrant workers receive equal pay for equal work, and ensure farmers equally share the gains from added value of land; improve the agricultural insurance system; encourage investment in rural development, and permit enterprises and social organizations to start all kinds of undertakings in rural areas; make a balanced allocation of compulsory education resources between urban and rural areas, integrate the basic old-age insurance and health-care insurance systems of urban and rural residents, and improve the balanced development of the minimum living allowance system in both urban and rural areas; and steadily make basic urban public services available to all permanent residents in cities, and incorporate farmers who have settled down in urban areas into the urban housing and social security network.

Fifth, promoting wide, multi-tiered and institutionalized consultative democracy. Consultative democracy is a unique form and distinctive advantage of China’s socialist democracy, and an important embodiment of the Party’s mass line in the political field. Promoting consultative democracy is conducive to improving the people’s orderly participation in political affairs, strengthening the ties between the Party and the people, and promoting scientific and democratic decision-making.

Promoting wide, multi-tiered and institutionalized consultative democracy is an important issue of political restructuring as stipulated in the Decision. The Decision stresses that, under the leadership of the Party, China will promote consultation throughout society with regard to major issues of economic and social development, and practical issues closely related to the interests of the people, and adhere to the principle of consultation before policy-making and during policy implementation. We will build a consultative democracy featuring appropriate procedures and complete segments to expand the consultation channels covering organs of state power, committees of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), political parties, and community-level and social organizations; conduct intensive consultations on issues relating to legislation, administration, democracy, political participation and social problems; give full play to the important role of the united front in consultative democracy, make the CPPCC serve as a major channel for conducting consultative democracy, improve the system of the CPPCC, specify the contents and procedures for consultation, diversify forms of consultative democracy, and more actively carry out orderly consultations on particular issues with those working on these issues, with representatives from all sectors of society, and with the relevant government departments on the handling of proposals, and increase the frequency of consultations to improve their effectiveness.

Sixth, reforming the judiciary and its operation mechanism. The judiciary is an important component of the political system. Miscarriage of justice has been a major concern of the people in recent years, and the judiciary suffers a lack of credibility largely due to its current defective system and operation mechanism, which need improvement.

Judicial reform is one of the key points in continuing the reform comprehensively. The Decision puts forward a series of new and related measures in the following aspects: reform of the judicial management system, unification of the management of staff, funds and properties of courts and procuratorates at and below the provincial level and exploration of ways to establish a judicial jurisdiction system that is appropriately separated from the administrative divisions; improvement of the mechanism for the use of judicial power; improvement of the responsibility system for handling cases by the presiding judge and the collegiate bench, by which the judges hand down verdicts and the collegiate bench is responsible for carrying them out; strict regulation of the procedures of sentence commutation, release on parole and medical parole; improvement of the mechanism for preventing and correcting wrong cases and the accountability system, and strict implementation of the rule banning illegal evidence; establishment of a system for settling complaints involving law violations and lawsuits made in the form of letters and visits in accordance with the law; and abolition of the re-education through labor system, and improvement of laws for the punishment and correction of unlawful and criminal acts.

These measures are of vital significance for ensuring that judicial departments independently exercise their judicial and procuratorial powers according to law, improving the judicial power operation mechanism in which rights and responsibilities are clear, improving judicial transparency and credibility, and safeguarding human rights.

Seventh, improving leading and working mechanisms for anti-corruption efforts. Fighting corruption has always been a widely discussed topic inside and outside the Party. We are now mainly challenged by the following problems: Anti-corruption forces performing functions separately makes it difficult to build up synergy; some cases are not dealt with resolutely; and the accountability system is too lax to handle reoccurring corruption cases.

The Decision lays out plans for promoting innovation in the anti-corruption mechanisms and institutions, and strengthening institutional guarantees. The main points are: strengthening the Party’s unified leadership to build a clean and honest government and combat corruption; ensuring that Party committees bear primary responsibility and the commissions for discipline inspection take the responsibility for oversight, and working out and implementing a feasible accountability system; improving the leading and working mechanisms for anti-corruption efforts, reforming and improving the functions of anti-corruption coordination groups at all levels, and leaving the investigation of corruption cases mainly to commissions for discipline inspection of higher levels; strengthening the leadership role of the higher levels over the lower levels of the discipline inspection commissions, and the simultaneous reporting of the related investigation process to the Party committee at the same level and the commission for discipline inspection at the next-higher level; and fully ensuring that the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection dispatches resident discipline inspection agencies to the central-level departments of the Party and the government, and improving the discipline inspection system at both the central and local levels, so that it covers all regions, all sectors, all enterprises and all public institutions.

All these measures are based on past experience and the suggestions of various groups and individuals.

Eighth, accelerating the improvement of the leadership for the management of the Internet. Cyber security and information security bear on national security and social stability, and pose new challenges for us in many aspects.

Falling behind the rapid development of Internet technology and applications, our current management of the Internet is seriously flawed and cannot function properly. Different administrative bodies engaged in multi-channel management of the Internet, overlapping functions and mismatch between powers and responsibilities - all these have led to inefficient management. Also, as the Internet grows into a new form of the media, the management of this online medium and the industry is lagging far behind the development of the business. With fast growth in the number of the users of micro-blogs, WeChat and other social network services and instant communication tools, which spread information quickly over wide areas and can mobilize large numbers of users, how to strengthen oversight within a legal framework and guide public opinion and how to ensure the orderly dissemination of online information, while at the same time safeguarding national security and social stability, have become pressing problems for us.

The Decision stipulates that we must adhere to the principles of proactive usage, well-planned development, management in accordance with the law and ensuring safety in strengthening management of the Internet in accordance with the law, and accelerating the improvement of the leadership for the management of the Internet. The aim of this is to integrate the functions of the related departments and form joint forces in the management of the Internet covering both technology and contents, and ranging from daily security to combating crimes, to ensure correct and safe Internet usage.

Ninth, establishing the National Security Commission. National security and social stability form the basis for further reform and progress. Currently we are challenged by pressure from two sources: Internationally we must safeguard state sovereignty, national security and our development interests, and domestically we need to maintain political and social stability. All kinds of foreseeable and unforeseeable risks are increasing significantly, but our security system is not good enough to meet the demands of ensuring national security. We need to establish a strong platform to coordinate our national security work. For this purpose, establishing the National Security Commission to strengthen unified leadership of national security at the central level has become an urgent matter.

The main responsibilities of the National Security Commission are to formulate and implement national security strategy, promote national security legislation, design principles and policies for national security work, and discuss and resolve key issues concerning national security.

Tenth, improving the country’s natural resource management and oversight systems. Improving the country’s natural resource management system is an important reform for developing the property right system for natural resources. It is also the intrinsic requirement for building an ecologically friendly country with complete support systems.

Some of our major frustrations in ecological protection are caused by problems in the ecological management system. One problem lies in the vague concept of ownership of natural resources by the whole people, which leads to problems in the identification of the rights and interests of the owners. To solve this problem, the Decision puts forth measures for improving the natural resource management system. The guiding thoughts are: ensuring people’s property rights to natural resources according to the principle of separation between ownership and management, one issue belonging to one department, and establishing a unified responsibility mechanism for people who act on behalf of the public to manage public natural resource assets.

There is a difference between the state’s exercise of power and management over the natural resource assets owned by the whole people and the state’s supervision and management of the natural resources within its territory. The former is the owner’s right, while the latter is the manager’s right. This requires us to improve the system of oversight of natural resources, and fulfill our duties as the managers of our territorial space. The owners of state-owned natural resource assets and the managers of state natural resources must act independently, while cooperating with and supervising each other.

We need to realize that our mountains, waters, forests, farmlands and lakes form a living community. The lifeline of the people comes from the farmland, that of the farmland comes from the water, that of the water comes from the mountain, that of the mountain comes from the earth, and that of the earth comes from the tree. To control the exploitation of natural resources and restore the ecosystem, we must follow the laws of nature. If people only tend to their own responsibilities, for example, growing trees, regulating rivers or protecting farmland in isolation, they are prone to gaining in one area and losing in another, which eventually leads to systemic destruction of the ecology. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to put one department in charge of the usage of the entire territory of a country, and carry out unified protection and restoration programs for its natural resources.

Eleventh, establishing the Leading Group for Continuing the Reform Comprehensively under the CPC Central Committee. Continuing the reform comprehensively is a complicated system engineering project, which requires more than one or several departments to carry out. Therefore, leadership at a higher level should be established for this purpose.

The Decision stipulates that the Party Central Committee will set up the Leading Group for Continuing the Reform Comprehensively. This is to give better play to the Party’s core function as leader having a picture of the whole situation and as chief coordinator of different aspects, so as to ensure the reform progresses smoothly and the assigned tasks are implemented as planned. The main responsibilities of this leading group are planning key national reforms, promoting coordinated reforms in various fields, coordinating various forces into a joint force for reform, strengthening supervision and oversight, and promoting full implementation of the reform’s aim and tasks.

III. Several Matters That Require Attention in Discussion

The task of this plenary session is to discuss the guiding thought and plans for continuing the reform comprehensively as proposed in the Decision. For the discussion, please bear the following in mind:

First, we must be more confident and courageous in pushing forward reform. Reform and opening up is a new great revolution of the Chinese people led by our Party in the new era. It is the most outstanding characteristic of contemporary China, and the distinctive feature of our Party. What has helped our Party inspire the people, unify them and pull their strength together over the past 35 years? What have we been relying on to stimulate the creativity and vitality of our people, realize rapid economic and social development and win a competitive advantage over capitalism? The answer has always been reform and opening up.

Looking to the future, there is no alternative to continuing reform and opening up if we are to solve all sorts of difficult problems hindering our development, defuse risks and meet challenges in all aspects, give better play to the advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and promote the steady and healthy development of the economy and society.

At the current stage, close attention to our reform and opening-up drive comes from inside and outside the Party and inside and outside the country as well. The entire Party and all sectors of society have high expectations for us. Our reform has come to a critical juncture. We must not waver in the slightest degree in carrying out reform and opening up, and we must continue to uphold and firmly adhere to the correct path of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The whole Party must reaffirm our conviction to push forward reform with greater political courage and wisdom, and stronger measures and methods.

Second, we must continue to free our minds and seek truth from facts. To keep our banner of reform and opening up flying high, we must also take pragmatic measures once we have a strong conviction. Actions speak louder than words. It is a strategic choice of the CPC Central Committee to make overall plans for continuing the reform comprehensively at the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. We must take this opportunity to make new breakthroughs in our reform. For this to happen, we need to further free our minds.

To break down the barriers of old notions and the fences of interest groups, freeing the mind is the first and most important step. Often, the roadblocks in our minds that hinder reform do not come from outside the system, but from within. If the mind is not freed we can hardly see the crux of our problems with the interest groups, or pinpoint the direction of our effort to break down the barriers. We will also find it difficult to come up with innovative reform measures. Therefore, we must have the courage and breadth of vision to seek self-improvement. We need to throw off the trammels of outdated ideas and overcome the constraints put in place by various departments for their own interests, and proactively conduct research and propose reform measures.

Before putting forth a reform measure, we must research and discuss it carefully, but this does not mean being overcautious or hesitant to try anything new. It is not possible to carry out reforms while keeping our current work pattern and operation system intact, nor is it possible to do it in a rock-steady or risk-free manner. As long as we have done thorough research and appraisal, and know what we are going to do agrees with the actual conditions and needs to be done, we will go ahead without looking back.

Third, we must put the interests of the state first when making deliberations. Continuing the reform comprehensively is a major strategic plan concerning the overall development of the Party and the state, rather than a single program to reform a certain aspect of a sector. “One who fails to plan for the whole situation is incapable of planning for a partial area.” You come from different departments and units, and you need to see things from a wider perspective. For major decisions, first we should judge whether a proposed reform measure meets the needs of the country, and whether it is conducive to the long-term development of the cause of the Party and the state. We must strive to look forward into the future, think beyond the times, and proactively draw up plans. This will enable us to put through reform measures that will genuinely promote the cause of the Party and the people.

To continue the reform comprehensively, we should strengthen planning at the top level and adopt a holistic approach in doing so. We should study more intensively the connectedness, consistency and feasibility of our reform measures. As we say, “We must push reform forward boldly and steadily.” Here “steadily” means adopting a holistic approach in planning, doing overall research and making decisions scientifically. Reforms in the economy, politics, culture, society and ecology are closely connected to and integrated in the reform of Party building. Reform in one sector will always affect other sectors and require other sectors to reform accordingly. If reforms in different areas do not support each other, and the measures taken in some sectors turn out to check the progress of other sectors, we will find it difficult to continue the reform comprehensively; we will get into a muddle with the reform if we disregard these factors.

Align Our Thinking with the Guidelines of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee

November 12, 2013 Part of the speech at the second plenary meeting of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee.

We have to unify the thinking and will of the whole Party first in order to unify the thinking and will of the people of all China’s ethnic groups so that everyone works together to advance our reform.

Here, I need to make a few points on how we should implement the guidelines of the plenary session, with the focus on the guiding principles, overall plans, objectives and tasks it has set forth.

First, we must take improving and developing the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and modernizing our national governance system and capacity as the general goal of continuing the reform comprehensively. Deng Xiaoping said in 1992 that it would probably take another 30 years for us to develop a more mature and well-defined system in every field. Based on his strategic thought, the plenary session proposed modernizing our national governance system and capacity. This is something that must be done to improve and develop the socialist system and to achieve socialist modernization. We decided to focus on the question of continuing the reform comprehensively at the plenary session - not the reform of one or several fields, but of all areas. We made this decision out of the overall consideration of improving our national governance system and capacity.

The national governance system and capacity of a country epitomize not only its many systems but also how well it can enforce them. Our national governance system is a system of institutions within which the country is governed with the leadership of the Party. It comprises economic, political, cultural, social and ecological as well as Party-building systems and mechanisms, laws and regulations. This is a complete set of closely connected and coordinated systems of the state. Our national governance capacity is the ability to use these systems to manage social affairs, including reform, development and stability, domestic and foreign affairs, national defense, and the running of the Party, state and military. Our national governance system and capacity complement each other and form an organic whole. An effective governance system will lead to greater governance capacity, while greater governance capacity can make the governance system more effective.

Actually, how to govern a socialist society, a completely new society, has not been clearly addressed by world socialism so far. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had no practical experience in the comprehensive governance of a socialist country, as their theories about a future society were mostly predictive. Vladimir Lenin, who passed away a few years after the October Revolution (1917) in Russia, was thus unable to explore this question in depth. The Soviet Union tackled this question and gained some experience, but it made serious mistakes and failed to resolve the problem. Our Party has worked on the same question steadily ever since it came to national power, and, in spite of serious setbacks, has accumulated rich experience and achieved great success in improving our governance system and enhancing our governance capacity. The success has been particularly resounding since we adopted the policy of reform and opening up. Enjoying political stability, economic growth, social harmony and ethnic unity, today’s China poses a striking contrast to many regions and countries that suffer constant chaos. This shows that our national governance system and capacity are on the whole quite sound and suited to our national conditions and development needs.

At the same time, we should also realize that, compared with China’s needs for social and economic development and our people’s expectations, and compared with today’s increasingly intense international competition, and the need to ensure prolonged stability at home, we still have many shortcomings to overcome in improving our national governance system and capacity. To realize genuine social harmony and stability, and lasting peace and security, we must rely on our effective institutions, our high capacity in governance and our high-caliber personnel. To give free rein to the advantages of Chinese socialism, we must promote the modernization of our national governance system and capacity in all fields.

To modernize our national governance system and capacity we should adapt properly to the changing times, and reform outdated systems, mechanisms, laws and regulations, while building new ones to make our institutions in all respects more appropriate and complete and the governance of Party, state and social affairs more institutionalized, standardized and procedure-based. We should pay more attention to building our governance capacity, enhancing our awareness of the need to act in accordance with institutions and the law, and our skills in running the country with institutions and the law, transforming our institutional advantages into greater governance effectiveness, and enhancing the Party’s capacity to govern in an effective and democratic way, and in accordance with the law.

Second, we must further free our mind, further release and develop the productive forces, and further stimulate and strengthen the vigor of society. The “three furthers” put forward at the plenary session are both objectives and conditions of our reform. Freeing our mind is a prerequisite or the ultimate switch for releasing and developing the productive forces, and strengthening the vigor of our society. Without freeing our mind, our Party would not have been able to make the historic decision to shift the focus of the work of the Party and the country to economic development and launch reform and opening up shortly after the ten-year turmoil of the Cultural Revolution, ushering in a new era in China’s development. Without freeing our mind, our Party would not have been able to promote theoretical and practical innovation, remove risks and challenges effectively to advance reform and opening up steadily, and remain at the forefront of the times. Releasing and developing the productive forces, and stimulating and strengthening the vigor of our society are an inevitable outcome as well as an important basis for freeing the mind.

To complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, achieve socialist modernization and the great renewal of the Chinese nation, the most essential and urgent task is to further release and develop the productive forces. The purpose of freeing our minds, and stimulating and strengthening the vigor of society is to better release and develop the productive forces. Deng Xiaoping said, “Revolution means the emancipation of the productive forces, and so does reform. After the basic socialist system has been established it will be necessary to fundamentally change the economic structure that has hampered the development of the productive forces and to establish a vigorous socialist economic structure that will promote their development.” By continuing reform, we will unleash the vitality of work, knowledge, technology, management, capital and other factors to open an abundance of social wealth. In addition, we must keep vitality and order in proper balance, as society needs vitality to progress, but such vitality should be accompanied by order. Neither a pool of stagnant water nor a surging undercurrent is what we want.

We stress the need to have confidence in our path, in our theories and in our system. In other words, we need to have strong willpower and faith. At the same time, we also need a strong material power that bolsters such willpower and faith. This requires constant reforms and innovations to ensure that Chinese socialism is more efficient than capitalism in releasing and developing the productive forces, stimulating and strengthening the vigor of society and promoting a well-rounded development of the person, and the arousing of greater enthusiasm, initiative and creativity among the people, create more favorable conditions for social development, and show a better edge in competition, thus fully displaying its advantages.

Third, we must keep our focus on economic reforms, and give full play to their catalytic role. The plenary session presented a road map for furthering reform comprehensively, with “six centering-ons," stressing the need to focus on economic reforms and their leading role. The basic fact that China is still in the primary stage of socialism and will long remain so has not changed; nor has the principal problem in our society, namely, inadequacy in meeting the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people, because of backward social production; and nor has China’s international position as the world’s largest developing country. All this dictates that economic development will remain the focus of the work of the whole Party.

Currently, most structural and institutional barriers hindering China’s proper development are found in the economy. Our economic reforms have not been completed, nor has the potential of such reforms been fully released. To keep economic development as our central task we must continue to focus on economic reforms without the slightest hesitation.

The economic base determines the superstructure. Economic reforms have a significant and pervasive bearing on the reform of other fields. And the tempo of progress in major economic reforms determines that of a host of other reforms, playing a critical part in the overall situation. In the “Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy ,” Karl Marx observed that “In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely, relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness.” As we continue to reform comprehensively, we should keep our focus on economic reforms, and strive to make breakthroughs in the reform of key fields, so that such breakthroughs will drive and stimulate reforms in other areas, and ensure that these reforms can work together and progress in concert. We should not take a fragmented and uncoordinated approach in this regard.

Fourth, we must uphold the direction of reform towards a socialist market economy. Identifying our reform as aiming to establish a socialist market economy is a significant theoretical and practical innovation our Party made in the course of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. This resolved a major problem that other socialist countries had long failed to resolve.

Over the past two decades or so we have advanced economic and other reforms centering on the goal of establishing a socialist market economy, and realized a great historic transition from a highly centralized planned economy to a robust socialist market economy, from seclusion and semi-seclusion to all-dimensional opening up, and from a life of subsistence to one of initial prosperity. The historic leap forward by which China’s economy rose to the second place in the world has greatly increased the enthusiasm of the Chinese people, greatly boosted the development of China’s productive forces, and added great vigor to the Party and the country.

At the same time, we should also be aware that although our socialist market economy has taken shape initially, it is not complete as a system, and it is not yet mature. In particular, a balance between the role of the government and that of the market in effectively and unrestrictedly allocating resources is yet to be established. So we have to make strenuous efforts to fulfill the strategic task of quickly improving our socialist market economy set by the 18th Party Congress.

The key to establishing a sound socialist market economy lies in striking a proper balance between the role of the government and that of the market, so that the market can play a decisive role in allocating resources and the government can play its own role more effectively. This represents another major step forward in our Party’s theoretical and practical exploration.

Establishing a sound socialist market economy is not only the basic need for the economic reforms, but also the core requirement for comprehensively continuing our reform. Letting the market play a decisive role in allocating resources will mainly require economic reforms, but it will also inevitably affect politics, culture, society, ecological progress and Party building. Institutional reforms of all areas should be promoted in concert with establishing a sound socialist market economy, while ensuring that their related links better meet the demands of a growing socialist market economy.

Fifth, we must make the promotion of social fairness and justice and the improvement of well-being both the starting point and ultimate goal. Since the beginning of reform and opening up, China has made remarkable achievements in economic and social development, which provide a solid material foundation and favorable conditions for social fairness and justice. Nevertheless, given the current level of development, injustice and inequality are still quite common in our society. As China develops further and the people’s living standards improve, public awareness of equality and democracy, and of rights and interests has been steadily enhanced, and hence people’s resentment at injustice becomes more pronounced.

After comprehensively reviewing and analyzing China’s current social and economic development, the CPC Central Committee has concluded that this problem, if not resolved in good time, will reduce public confidence in our reform and opening up, and undermine social harmony and stability. As the 18th Party Congress pointed out, fairness and justice are inherent requirements of socialism with Chinese characteristics. We must, relying on the concerted efforts of all the Chinese people and based on economic and social development, step up efforts to develop institutions that are vital to ensuring social fairness and justice; establish in due course a system for ensuring fairness in society featuring, among other things, equal rights, equal opportunities and fair rules for all; and foster a fair social environment and ensure the people’s equal right to participation in governance and to development.

This plenary session stressed that to comprehensively continue reform we must make the promotion of social fairness and justice, and improvement of the people’s lives both the starting point and ultimate goal. This is a necessary requirement of the fundamental purpose of our Party, which is to serve the people wholeheartedly. Comprehensively furthering the reform must be the guarantee of building a more equitable and just social environment, addressing breaches of equity and justice, and bringing more of the benefits of development to all the people in a fairer fashion. If we cannot deliver tangible benefits to the people, and create a fairer social environment, and, worse still, if we cause more inequality, then our reform will lose its meaning and cannot be sustained.

Realizing social fairness and justice requires multiple factors, a higher level of social and economic development being the most crucial one. Understanding of and desires for social fairness and justice may differ when there are differences in development levels and historical periods, and people’s outlook and social background. When we speak of social fairness and justice, we mean to proceed from the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, and view and address this problem from the larger picture of social development, social harmony and the people as a whole. The violations of social fairness and justice in the country are mainly fundamental problems in the course of development, which can be resolved by institutional, legal and policy arrangements in tandem with continued development. We must take economic development as the central task, promote sustained and sound growth, and “make the cake bigger,” thereby laying a more solid material foundation for greater social fairness and justice.

This does not mean that we should wait to address the problem of social fairness and justice until the economy is developed. The nature of the problems may differ from period to period, bearing the features of society - developed or not so developed - in which they are found. Even when the “cake” has indeed become bigger, we must cut it fairly. The Chinese people have always had a perception that “inequality rather than want is the cause of trouble.” Based on continued development, we should do a better job of promoting fairness and justice, trying our best while being mindful of our limitations so that we can keep making progress in ensuring people’s access to education, remunerable employment, health care, old-age care and housing.

No matter what development level a society is at, institutions are always an indispensable guarantee of social fairness and justice. We should strive to overcome injustice and inequality caused by man-made factors through innovative institutional arrangements, and ensure our people’s rights to equal participation and development. We should take social fairness and justice and the living standards of the people as a mirror to examine our systems, mechanisms, policies and regulations in all respects, and introduce reforms accordingly by focusing on areas where the problems of injustice and inequality are most prevalent. As for problems caused by unsound institutional arrangements, timely measures should be taken to reflect better the principle of fairness and justice in our socialist society and better realize, maintain and develop the fundamental interests of our people.

Sixth, we must rely on the people to promote reform. The people are the creators of history and the source of our strength. The fundamental reason why our reform and opening up has won the people’s wholehearted support and vigorous participation all along lies in the fact that from the very beginning we let the cause strike deep roots among the people. The Decision of this plenary session reviewed the valuable experiences of our reform and opening up, one of which highlighted the importance of putting people first, respecting their principal position in the country, giving free rein to their creativity, and promoting reform with the close support of the people. In the absence of the people’s support and participation, no reform can possibly succeed. No matter what difficulties and challenges we may encounter, we will prevail as long as we have the people’s support and participation. We must implement the Party’s mass line and rally closely with the people, sharing weal and woe with them, and working vigorously by their side.

To push forward any key reform we must have the major issues concerning the reform examined and addressed from the people’s standpoint, while formulating guidelines and measures based on the people’s interests. Wang Fu of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) said, “The roc soars lithely not merely because of the lightness of one of its feathers; the steed runs fast not merely because of the strength of one of its legs.” If China wants to fly high and run fast, it must rely on the strength of its 1.3 billion people.

When we encounter complicated problems hard to weigh and balance in the course of comprehensively promoting reform, we should think of the actual conditions of the people. What are they expecting? How can their interests be safeguarded? Are they satisfied with our reform? To make our decisions on reform more appropriate, the most important thing is to listen extensively to the opinions and proposals of the people, promptly review their fresh experience, fully mobilize their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, bring their wisdom and strength to the cause of reform, and work with them to move the cause forward.

Push Ahead with Reform Despite More Difficulties

February 7, 2014 Part of an exclusive interview with the Russia Television.

Sergei Brilyov: The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the “Decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Some Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Continuing the Reform,” and you have been made head of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Continuing the Reform. What I want to know is how you will govern. What will China’s reform focus on next? What do you think of the prospects for China’s development?

Xi Jinping: These are important questions concerning China’s development. It has been more than 35 years since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee launched China’s reform and opening up in 1978. We have made remarkable achievements, but we should continue to make progress. We have set the Two Centenary Goals. At present economic globalization is progressing rapidly, intense competition in overall national strength is intensifying between countries, and the international situation is complicated and volatile. We have concluded from this that fundamentally speaking, caught in fierce international competition, we are like a boat traveling upstream: We must press ahead or we will fall behind.

China’s reform has been greatly furthered in both breadth and depth. Top-level design is needed to advance reform. Last November the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee made overall planning for advancing reform comprehensively, and formulated the road map and schedule for reform. The plan includes over 330 reform measures for 15 areas, such as the economy, politics, culture, society, ecological progress and Party building. So we have sounded the bugle to advance reform. Our general objective is to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and modernize our national governance system and capacity.

To concentrate on advancing reform, we founded the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Continuing the Reform with me as the head. The group is designed to make overall planning and coordination for major issues, and share out the tasks to be implemented. Now that we have a plan, it is most important to implement it.

It is no easy job to advance reform in China, which has a population of over 1.3 billion. Having been pushed ahead for more than 30 years, China’s reform has entered a deep-water zone. It can be said that the easy part of the job has been done to the satisfaction of all. What is left are tough bones that are hard to chew. This requires us to act boldly and progress steadily. To act boldly means to advance reform despite difficulties and be eager to take on challenges, chew tough bones, and wade through dangerous shoals. To progress steadily means to stay on course and proceed in safety, and, more importantly, make no fatal mistakes.

I have full confidence in the prospects for China’s development. Why? The underlying reason is that after long-term exploration we have found a correct development path suited to China’s actual conditions. As long as we rely closely on the 1.3 billion Chinese people and firmly stay on our own path we will overcome all difficulties and obstacles, make new achievements, and finally reach our goal.

The CPC exercises state power for the people. The people’s aspiration for a better life is our goal. To put it briefly, I will govern by serving the people and fulfilling all my responsibilities.

Brilyov: You have been the president of China for almost a year. How do you feel as the leader of such a big country? What hobbies do you have? What are your favorite sports?

Xi: China covers a land of 9.6 million square kilometers and has 56 ethnic groups and a population of over 1.3 billion. China’s social and economic development level and its people’s living standards are not high. It is not easy to govern such a country, so I must ascend a height to enjoy a distant view while planting my feet on solid ground. I worked in different regions in China for a long time, so I am fully aware that the differences are great between the country’s east and west, between the central and local governments, between different localities and between different levels of local governments. Therefore, as a Chinese leader, I must take all factors into consideration based on a correct understanding of China’s conditions, maintain an overall balance, and concentrate on priorities to promote the overall situation. I alternate my attention between major and minor issues, and, to put it figuratively, it is like playing the piano with all ten fingers.

Since the people have put me in the position of head of state, I must put them above everything else, bear in mind my responsibilities that are as weighty as Mount Tai, always worry about the people’s security and well-being, and work conscientiously day and night; share the same feelings with the people, share both good and bad times with them, and work in concerted efforts with them.

Speaking of hobbies, I like reading, watching movies, traveling and strolling. As you know, I almost have no private time in the position I am in. A song titled, “Where Did the Time Go” became popular in China during this Spring Festival. For me, the question is where my private time goes. I spend all of it on my work. Now, the only thing I have managed to keep as a hobby is reading, which has become my way of life. Reading invigorates my mind, gives me inspiration and cultivates my moral force. I have read many works by Russian writers, including Ivan Krylov, Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov, Ivan Turgenev, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolay Nekrasov, Nikolay Chernyshevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Mikhail Sholokhov. I remember clearly many of their excellent chapters and stories.

Speaking of sports, I like swimming and mountaineering. I learned to swim at the age of four or five. I also like football, volleyball, basketball, tennis and martial arts. Among snow and ice sports, I like to watch ice hockey, speed skating, figure skating and freestyle skiing. Ice hockey is my favorite. It requires not only individual strength and skill but also teamwork and collaboration. It is indeed a good sport.

Improve Governance Capacity Through the Socialist System with Chinese Characteristics

February 17, 2014 Main points of the speech at a provincial-level officials’ seminar on studying and implementing the decisions of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee on continuing reform.

To keep up with the overall progress in the national modernization process, we must improve the CPC’s capability for scientific, democratic and law-based governance, and enhance the efficiency of government departments. We must improve the general public’s ability to manage state, social, economic and cultural affairs in accordance with the law. In this way, Party, state and social affairs will be administered in accordance with rules, standards and procedures, and we will become better able to govern the country through the socialist system with Chinese characteristics.

The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee pointed out that the overall goal of continuing the reform to a deeper level is to develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and modernize our national governance system and capacity. This is a prerequisite for adhering to and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics and for realizing socialist modernization.

Since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policy some three decades ago, our Party has begun to ponder the issue of national governance system from a new perspective, and come to the conclusion that the issues of leadership and organizational systems are fundamental, comprehensive, stable and permanent ones.

Today, we are tasked with an important historic mission, that is to make our socialist system with Chinese characteristics more mature and better established, and provide a set of more complete, more stable and more effective systems for the development of the Party and the nation, the well-being of the people, social harmony and stability, and the enduring prosperity and stability of the country. This is a grand project. It entails carrying out all-round and systematic reform, and integrating reform in various fields to promote the overall modernization of our national governance system and capacity.

A country’s governance system and capacity are the major barometers of its system and that system’s governing efficiency. The two are complementary. Our governance system and capacity are good overall and have unique advantages. Moreover, they suit our national conditions and development needs.

Nevertheless, our national governance system and capacity still have much room for improvement, and we should exert greater efforts to enhance our national governance capacity. Our governance system will become more efficient as long as we focus on improving the Party’s governance capacity while raising the moral and political standards, scientific and cultural levels, and professional abilities of officials at all levels and administrators of all areas, and as long as we make Party and government agencies, enterprises, public institutions, and social organizations more efficient.

We must understand that the overall goal of continuing the reform to a deeper level consists of two aspects, that is, to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and to modernize our national governance system and capacity. To accelerate the modernization of the national governance system and capacity, we must follow the socialist path with Chinese characteristics.

The kind of governance system best suited for a country is determined by that country’s historical heritage and cultural traditions, and its level of social and economic development, and it is ultimately decided by that country’s people. Our current national governance system has been developed and gradually improved over a long period of time on the basis of our historied heritage, cultural traditions, and social and economic development.

Our national governance system needs to be improved, but we should have our own opinion on what improvements are necessary. The Chinese nation is open-minded. Over centuries, we have been continuously drawing on others’ strengths and shaping the character of our own nation. Without unwavering confidence in our system we cannot have the courage to further reform, and without continuous reform our confidence in the system cannot possibly be full and long-lasting.

Continuing our reform to a deeper level involves improving our socialist system with Chinese characteristics. When we say boosting our confidence in the system, we do not mean to be complacent. Instead, we should continue to eradicate drawbacks in the system, and make it more mature and more enduring.

To modernize our national governance system and capacity, we should foster and promote the core socialist values and the relevant system, and accelerate the building of a value system that fully reflects the characteristics of China, the Chinese nation and the times. To safeguard our value system and core values, we must let culture play its due role.

A nation’s culture is a unique feature that distinguishes that nation from others. We should delve deeper into and better elucidate China’s excellent traditional culture, and make greater efforts to creatively transform and develop traditional Chinese virtues, promoting a cultural spirit that transcends time and national boundaries, and has eternal attraction and contemporary value.

We should also present to the world China’s contemporary creative cultural products that carry both our excellent traditional culture and contemporary spirit, and that are based in China and oriented towards the outside world.

As long as the Chinese people pursue lofty virtues generation after generation our nation will be forever filled with hope.

Producing a good document is only the first step in the long march of thousands of miles. The key is to implement the document. We should meticulously and strenuously study and promote the guiding principles of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, and gain a solid understanding of continued reform. While studying the document, we should not stop at the surface, quote it out of context, copy it mechanically or apply it blindly. We should straighten out the relationship between the general policy arrangement and a particular policy, between a policy chain and a link, between top-level policy design and policy interfaces at different levels, between policy consistency and diversity, and between long- and short-term policies. We cannot replace the whole with any part, nor can we compromise principles for the sake of flexibility, or vice versa.

While implementing the document we should avoid empty talk, hesitation or seeking quick success, and instant benefits. We should implement it with a very strong sense of urgency and responsibility.

Reform is a gradual process. We should make bold breakthroughs while advancing step by step, so as to ensure the realization of the reform goals.

Continuing all-round reform to a deeper level is aimed at serving the overall, basic and long-term interests of the country. We should avoid picking reform areas according to personal preferences, and should get rid of reform-hindering mindsets. We must firmly carry out reform that benefits the Party and the people, and contributes to prosperity and long-term stability. Doing this will enable us to fulfill our historic mission and our responsibilities to the people, the country and the nation.

Economic Development

Economic Growth Must Be Genuine and Not Inflated

Open Wider to the Outside World

The “Invisible Hand” and the “Visible Hand”

Transition to Innovation-driven Growth

Revolutionize Energy Production and Consumption

Rule of Law

Commemorate the 30th Anniversary of the Promulgation and Implementation of the Current Constitution

Develop a Law-based Country, Government and Society

Promote Social Fairness and Justice, Ensure a Happy Life for the People

Culturally Advanced China

Enhance Publicity and Theoretical Work

Strong Ethical Support for the Realization of the Chinese Dream

Enhance China’s Cultural Soft Power

Cultivate and Disseminate the Core Socialist Values

Young People Should Practice the Core Socialist Values

Foster and Practice Core Socialist Values from Childhood

Social Undertakings

Eliminate Poverty and Accelerate Development in Impoverished Areas

Better and Fairer Education for the 1.3 Billion Chinese People

Accelerate the Development of Housing Security and Supply

Always Put People’s Lives First

Build China into a Cyberpower

A Holistic View of National Security

Safeguard National Security and Social Stability

Ecological Progress

A Better Environment for a Beautiful China

Usher in a New Era of Ecological Progress

Leave to Our Future Generations Blue Skies, Green Fields and Clean Water

National Defense

Build up Our National Defense and Armed Forces

Build Strong National Defense and Powerful Military Forces

Build People’s Armed Forces That Follow the Party’s Commands, Are Able to Win Battles and Have Fine Conduct

“One Country, Two Systems”

Hong Kong, Macao and the Chinese Mainland Are Closely Linked by Destiny

Create a Better Future for the Chinese Nation Hand in Hand

Handle Cross-Straits Relations in the Overall Interests of the Chinese Nation

Together Fulfill the Chinese Dream of National Rejuvenation

Take on the Task of Expanding Cross-Straits Relations and Achieving National Rejuvenation

Peaceful Development

Strengthen the Foundation for Pursuing Peaceful Development

Work Together for Mutually Beneficial Cooperation

Follow a Sensible, Coordinated and Balanced Approach to Nuclear Security

Exchanges and Mutual Learning Make Civilizations Richer and More Colorful

China’s Commitment to Peaceful Development

New Model of Major-country Relations

Follow the Trend of the Times and Promote Global Peace and Development

Build a New Model of Major-country Relationship Between China and the United States

Build a Bridge of Friendship and Cooperation Across the Eurasian Continent

Neighborhood Diplomacy

Work Together to Build the Silk Road Economic Belt

Work Together to Build a 21st-century Maritime Silk Road

Diplomacy with Neighboring Countries Characterized by Friendship, Sincerity, Reciprocity and Inclusiveness

Cooperation with Developing Countries

Be Trustworthy Friends and Sincere Partners Forever

Forge a Stronger Partnership Between China and Latin America and the Caribbean

Promote the Silk Road Spirit, Strengthen China-Arab Cooperation

Multilateral Relations

Work Hand in Hand for Common Development

A Better Future for Asia and the World

Jointly Maintain and Develop an Open World Economy

Carry Forward the “Shanghai Spirit” and Promote Common Development

Work Together for a Better Asia Pacific

New Approach for Asian Security Cooperation

Close Ties with the People

Strictly Enforce Diligence and Thrift, Oppose Extravagance and Waste The Mass Line: Fundamental to the CPC

The Guiding Thoughts and Goals for the Program of Mass Line Education and Practice

Establish and Promote the Conduct of “Three Stricts and Three Earnests”

Combat Corruption

Power Must Be “Caged” by the System

Historical Wisdom Helps Us Combat Corruption and Uphold Integrity Improve Party Conduct, Uphold Integrity and Combat Corruption

The CPC Leadership

Follow a Good Blueprint

Study for a Brighter Future

“Governing a Big Country Is as Delicate as Frying a Small Fish” Train and Select Good Officials

Appendix

Man of the People

Notes

  1. The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee holds regular study sessions. The sessions are presided over and addressed by the general secretary of the Central Committee, and attended by all members of the Political Bureau. Leaders of relevant departments, experts and scholars are invited to lecture on economics, political science, history, culture, social affairs, science and technology, military and international affairs.
  2. The 18th National Congress of the CPC put forward the accomplishment of the goal of bringing about a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. The main elements of the goal are healthy and sustainable economic development with both the GDP and per capita income for urban and rural residents doubling those of 2010; expanded people’s democracy; significantly improved cultural soft power; substantially improved people’s living standards; and major progress in building a resource- conserving and environmentally friendly society.
  3. Hu Jintao, born in 1942, was general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of the People’s Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CPC, and chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China. He is the principal founder of the Scientific Outlook on Development.
  4. Mao Zedong (1893-1976) was a Marxist, Chinese proletarian revolutionary, military strategist and theorist. He was one of the main founders of the CPC, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Republic of China, and the leader of the Chinese people. He was also the progenitor of Mao Zedong Thought.
  5. Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) was a Marxist, Chinese proletarian revolutionary, statesman, military strategist and great diplomat. He was an outstanding leader of the CPC, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Republic of China. He was the chief architect of China’s socialist reform and opening up and modernization drive, and the main founder of Deng Xiaoping Theory.
  6. Jiang Zemin, born in 1926, was general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, president of the People’s Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CPC, and chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People’s Republic of China. He is the main founder of the important thought of the Three Represents.
  7. The Four Cardinal Principles refer to the principles of adhering to the socialist path, the people’s democratic dictatorship, the leadership of the CPC, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought. The Four Cardinal Principles are the foundation of the state, and the political cornerstone for the survival and development of the Party and the state.
  8. ism is a system of theories initiated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, including the scientific worldview, the interpretation of social and historical development, the theory of proletarian revolution, and the theory of building socialism and communism. It is the theoretical basis and guiding thought of the working class and its political party. Initiated in the 1840s, it was the outcome of intensified capitalist conflicts and growing workers’ movements. It has three major components, namely, Marxist philosophy, political economics and scientific socialism. In the late 19th century and the early 20th century,when capitalism entered the stage of monopoly which would be imperialism, Vladimir Lenin drew on the experience of the proletarian revolution and socialist construction in Russia, and creatively upgraded Marxism to a new stage – Leninism. Since its founding in 1921 the CPC has solemnly marked its banner with Marxism-Leninism, innovatively applied the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism to the practice of Chinese revolution, socialist construction and reform, enriched and developed Marxism-Leninism, and generated the theoretical fruits of sinicized Marxism – Mao Zedong Thought and the system of theories of Chinese socialism that both carry on Marxism-Leninism and advance with the times.
  9. Deng Xiaoping Theory is an important component of the system of theories of Chinese socialism, and the guiding thought of the CPC. For the first time, Deng Xiaoping Theory systematically answered a series of basic questions concerning the building of socialism in economically and culturally backward China, and the consolidation and development of socialism there. The principal proponent was Deng Xiaoping.
  10. The important thought of the Three Represents is a major component of the system of theories of Chinese socialism, and the guiding thought of the CPC. This theory emphasizes that the CPC must always represent the requirements for developing China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people. The principal proponent is Jiang Zemin.
  11. The Scientific Outlook on Development is an important component of the system of theories of Chinese socialism, and the guiding thought of the CPC. It gives top priority to development, puts people first and seeks all-around, balanced and sustainable development with a holistic approach. The principal proponent is Hu Jintao.
  12. Mao Zedong Thought has always been the fundamental guiding thought of the CPC. It is a series of theoretical summarizations and conclusions that Chinese Communists represented by Mao Zedong drew from their unique experience in China’s revolution and development in accordance with the basic tenets of Marxism. It includes correct theories, principles and systems of scientific thinking on China’s revolution and development which have been attested by facts. It is the crystallization of the collective wisdom of the CPC, and the principal proponent is Mao Zedong.
  13. The fundamental political system refers to the system of people’s congresses, which is the organizational form of the political power of the People’s Republic of China. According to the system, the people elect deputies to the National People’s Congress (NPC) and local people’s congresses that are the organs in which the people exercise state power. The NPC is the highest organ of state power, and has the right to amend the Constitution, enact laws and decide on major issues concerning the country. Local people’s congresses at all levels are local organs of state power, which decide on major issues in their localities within the power bestowed on them by the Constitution and laws.
  14. The basic political systems include the system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation, the system of regional ethnic autonomy and the system of community-level self-governance. The system of CPC-led multiparty cooperation and political consultation refers to the system of consultation on political matters among the CPC, other political parties and personages with no party affiliation. The system of regional ethnic autonomy refers to the exercise of regional autonomy in areas inhabited by minority ethnic groups in compact communities under unified state leadership, where autonomy is exercised by organs of self-government. The system of community-level self-governance is a form of people’s participation in the management of state and social affairs. Neighborhood committees and village committees set up in urban and rural areas, respectively, are the self-governance organizations of thepeople in their own residential areas.
  15. The basic economic system refers to the economic system in which public ownership is dominant and diverse forms of ownership develop side by side.
  16. Deng Xiaoping: “Excerpts from Talks Given in Wuchang, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shanghai,” Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, Volume III, Eng. ed., Foreign Languages Press, Beijing, 1994, p. 360.
  17. The primary stage of socialism is a particular historical stage in the building of Chinese socialism. It refers to the historical stage in which China has gradually come out of under-development and will have by and large realized socialist modernization. It will take at least 100 years to take shape from the completion of the socialist transformation of the private ownership of the means of production in the 1950s to the completion of socialist modernization.
  18. “One central task, two basic points” is the main content of the CPC’s basic guideline in the primary stage of socialism. The “one central task” refers to economic development, while the “two basic points” are the Four Cardinal Principles and the reform and opening-up policy.
  19. The three-step strategic plan for modernization refers to China’s development strategy for realizing initial modernization in three steps. The 13th CPC National Congress in 1987 proposed doubling the 1980 GNP by the end of the 1980s and ensuring that the people would have adequate food and clothing as the first step; doubling the 1990 GNP by the end of the 20th century and ensuring the people a moderately prosperous life as the second step; and increasing the per capita GNP level to that of moderately developed countries, ensuring the people a relatively affluent life, and realizing modernization by and large by the middle of the 21st century as the third step.
  20. The “four tests” refer to the tests of exercising governance, carrying out reform and opening up, developing the market economy and responding to external development.
  21. The “four risks” refer to the risks of inertia, incompetence, being divorced from the people, and corruption and other negative phenomena.
  22. The program to heighten awareness of and implement the Party’s mass line has been carried out throughout the CPC since its 18th National Congress in order to maintain the CPC’s advanced nature and purity. The program focuses on serving the people and building a clean government. Priorities are given to leading organs, leading groups and leading officials at and above the county level. It aims to enhance education of all Party members in the Marxist mass viewpoint and the Party’s mass line, and solve such problems as formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance that are of grave concern to the people. The campaign was launched in late 2013 and has been unfolded in two sessions from the top down.
  23. Su Shi: On Xiang Yu and Fan Zeng. Su Shi (1036-1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a famed poet, calligrapher and painter in the Song Dynasty (960-1279).