|Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities|
Municipios Autónomos Rebeldes Zapatistas
Motto: Aquí manda el Pueblo y el Gobierno Obedece
"Here the people give the orders and the government obeys"
|Capital (de facto)||Oventik, Larráinzar, Chiapas|
|Dominant mode of production||Socialism|
|Government||Libertarian socialist confederation|
• Zapatista revolution
|1 January 1994|
• 2018 estimate
The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities are autonomous territories in Chiapas, Mexico. They were established following a revolution in 1994 by the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN). Although they are sometimes called anarchists, the Zapatistas reject this label.
On 1 January 1994, the day NAFTA began operation, rebels from the Zapatista Army of National Liberation occupied the towns of San Cristobal de las Casas, Las Margaritas, Altamirano, and Ocosingo in Chiapas. They captured weapons from a military base and freed prisoners from the area. After being attacked by air force bombers, they retreated into the highlands. On January 10, 500,000 people participated in a demonstration for peace in Mexico City. President Carlos Salinas called for an end to the fighting and peace talks were held in February and March.
After the negotiations, the Zapatistas held a National Democratic Convention in the Lacandon Jungle. They attempted to organize an alliance against the social democratic Institutional Revolutionary Party, but they failed and social democrat Ernesto Zedillo was elected president. In 1994, the EZLN broke through a military blockade and surrounded the Mexican army. The Zapatistas continued to take more territory and captured over 1,500 properties and over 900 km² of land by June 1995, despite many villages being destroyed in a counterattack in February.
In non-Zapatista areas of Chiapas, 90% of indigenous children do not complete primary school and most teachers do not speak any indigenous languages. Primary school is available in all Zapatista communities and 37% of students continue to secondary school.
84% of Zapatista communities are vaccinated against diseases such as malaria compared to only 75% in areas controlled by the Mexican state. Only 32% of people in Zapatista territories have tuberculosis compared to 84% in the rest of Chiapas. Alcohol is prohibited, leading to a decrease in diseases and infections.
- Iker Reyes Godelmann (2014-07-30). "The Zapatista Movement: The Fight for Indigenous Rights in Mexico" Australian Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 2022-03-19.
- Mike Antipathy (2002). "A Zapatista Response to "The EZLN Is NOT Anarchist"" Green Anarchy. Archived from the original on 2009-08-13.
- Aufheben. "A Commune in Chiapas?" The Anarchist Library. Archived from the original on 2021-06-14. Retrieved 2022-05-22.
- Cian Warfield. Understanding Zapatista Autonomy: An Analysis of Healthcare and Education. National University of Ireland, Cork.
- J. H. Cuevas (2007). Health and Autonomy: The Case of Chiapas. World Health Organization.