Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1919–1991)

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Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка
Украинская Советская Социалистическая Республика
Flag of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Coat of arms of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Coat of arms
Motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся!
Workers of the world, unite!
Location of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
and largest city
Dominant mode of productionSocialism
GovernmentMarxist-Leninist state
• Soviet republic declared
10 March 1919
• Admitted to USSR
30 December 1922
26 December 1991
• Total
603,628 km²
• 1989 census
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Republic
Second Polish Republic (portion)
Kingdom of Romania (portion)
Czechoslovakia (portion)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was an independent socialist state from 1919 to 1922 and a republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.[1]


After the Great October Socialist Revolution, Ukraine trained tens of thousands of teachers and founded dozens of universities. Poland occupied the western part of Ukraine until 1939.[2]

National policies

Jewish policies

In 1924, the Soviet Union formed the Committee for the Land Organization of Workers to help Jews settle in the countryside, which had been illegal before 1917. By the late 1920s, over 100,000 Jews worked on farms. Jewish-operated farms, most of which were in Ukraine and Crimea (then part of the RSFSR), conducted education and work in Yiddish. Yiddish was an official language in some regions of Ukraine, which conducted court proceedings in Yiddish.[2]


During the 1920s, the Soviet government promoted the Ukrainian language as part of its Ukrainization policies to combat Great Russian chauvinism. The percentage of books printed in Ukrainian in the Ukrainian SSR increased from 31% in 1923 to 54% in 1928. The amount of newspapers printed in Ukrainian increased from 37% to 63% in this same time period.[3] In 1926, the majority of civil servants in Ukraine were ethnic Ukrainians and the percentage of ethnic Ukrainians in the Communist Party of Ukraine, a regional branch of the CPSU, rose from 20% in 1920 to 60% in 1933.[2]


  1. Gary Lee (1986-10-27). "Soviets Begin Recovery From Disaster's Damage" The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2021-05-18. Retrieved 2022-01-15.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Ukrainian Nationalists have long history of anti-semitism which the Soviet Union tried to combat" (2022-10-21). Monthly Review. Archived from the original on 2022-10-21. Retrieved 2022-10-22.
  3. Eugene Puryear (2022-06-12). "Nations and Soviets: The National Question in the USSR" Liberation School. Archived from the original on 2022-06-13. Retrieved 2022-08-31.