Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Hegel by Bürkner (cropped).jpg
Born27 August 1770
Stuttgart, Germany
Died14 November 1831
Alma materUniversity of Jena
School traditionHegelianism

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was the most important German idealistic philosopher, especially important for his dialectical method, which he conceived of from an idealistic position, but which was mostly correct.

Hegel was an objective idealist. According to him, the primary principle of reality is the absolute Idea, which first reveals itself in nature and then becomes spirit and knowledge. This becoming of the Idea comprises a logical-dialectical development of which real history is but the expression. Hence, according to Hegel, it is pure thought which creates the world and its history; the world is but the manifestation of the Idea.

As Feuerbach demonstrated, this Idea is nothing but the Christian God in an abstract and logical wrapping. Marx and Engels turned Hegel’s dialectics right side up and “set it back on its feet” by giving it a materialist content and thus converting it into a truly revolutionary theoretical weapon.


  1. System of Science
    1. Part I: Phenomenology of Spirit
    2. Part II: Science of Logic
  2. Elements of the Philosophy of Right


  1. Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (Hegel's lecture textbook)
  2. Lecture notes compiled by students
    1. Lectures on the History of Philosophy
    2. Lectures on the Philosophy of History
    3. Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion
    4. Lectures on Aesthetics