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"More than 100 nations and nationalities live in the USSR."

Plurinationalism, or plurinationality is the coexistence of two or more preserved national groups within a single polity, usually a nation state.[citation needed]

In circumstances where the Leninist conception of national self-determination is not necessary (i.e. the minority nation does not wish to secede into a new nation-state) nations can be adequately protected and represented by a plurinational state.

One example of this is the democratic-socialist state of Bolivia, which maintains the line of plurinationality in order to preserve the national character of indigenous groups while also dealing with the historical facts of colonization; particularly the large Mestizo population.