Kim Il-Sung (1912–1994) developed the ideology, with his On The Juche Idea which was originally viewed as a variant of Marxism–Leninism until it became distinctly Korean in character. It incorporates the historical materialist ideas of Marxism–Leninism and strongly emphasized the individual, the nation state and its sovereignty.
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- Paul French (2014). North Korea: State of Paranoia. Zed Books.