Republic of Lithuania

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Republic of Lithuania
Lietuvos Respublika
Flag of Republic of Lithuania
Coat of arms of Republic of Lithuania
Coat of arms
Lithuania (dark green) in the European Union (light green)
Lithuania (dark green) in the European Union (light green)
and largest city
Official languagesLithuanian
Dominant mode of productionCapitalism
• President
Gitanas Nauseda
• Total
65,300 km²
• 2022 estimate

Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It was a republic of the Soviet Union from the Second World War until the counterrevolution of 1991. The CIA has secret prisons in Lithuania since 2001, although the U.S. government did not admit it until 2006.[1]


Interwar period

The Red Army took Vilnius in January 1919 but was driven out by Western-backed nationalists. After a coalition of socialists and populists won the 1926 election, a military coup established a fascist dictatorship led by Antanas Smetona, an admirer of Mussolini. After Lithuania violated a mutual assistance treaty with the Soviet Union in 1940, communist forces in Lithuania organized its incorporation into the USSR.[2]

Second World War

Nazi Germany invaded Lithuania in 1941 following a nationalist rebellion in Vilnius. The Red Army drove the Nazis out in 1944 with support from Lithuanian guerrillas, but scattered fighting against the Soviet Union continued until 1953.[2]

Soviet era

During the Soviet era, a higher percentage of Lithuanians were enrolled in higher education that ethnic Russians.[3] Living standards and the economy improved rapidly under socialism.[2]

Capitalist era

Due to the capitalist counterrevolution, poverty increased from 1% in the late 1980s to 30% in 1994.[4] In 2004, the bourgeois Lithuanian regime joined NATO.[5] In 2009, the IMF cut wages for Lithuanian health and education workers by 20% to 40%.[6]


  1. Derek Jennings (2011-02-03). "Re-open investigation of secret CIA prisons in Lithuania!" Liberation News. Archived from the original on 2019-07-14. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Albert Szymanski (1984). Human Rights in the Soviet Union: 'The European Nationalities in the USSR' (pp. 80–81). [PDF] London: Zed Books Ltd.. ISBN 0862320186 [LG]
  3. Eugene Puryear (2022-06-06). "Nations and Soviets: The National Question in the USSR" Liberation News. Archived from the original on 2022-06-30. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  4. Branko Milanovic (1998). Income, Inequality, and Poverty during the Transition from Planned to Market Economy: 'Poverty; By How Much Has Poverty Increased?' (p. 68). [PDF] Washington, D.C.: World Bank. ISBN 082133994X
  5. Richard Becker (2022-01-25). "Right on NATO’s doorstep?" Liberation News. Archived from the original on 2022-02-25. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  6. Radhika Miller (2009-05-16). "Lithuanian workers latest victims of IMF, capitalism" Liberation News. Archived from the original on 2019-07-14. Retrieved 2022-08-08.