Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance

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Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance

Организация Варшавского Договора
AbbreviationWTO (ОВД)
Supreme CommanderIvan Konev (1955-1960)
Andrey Grechko (1960-1967)
Ivan Yakubovsky (1967-1976)
Viktor Kulikov (1977-1989)
Pyotr Lushev (1989-1991)
Chief of Combined StaffAleksey Antonov (1955-1962)
Pavel Batov (1962-1965)
Mikhail Kazakov (1965-1968)
Sergey Shtemenko (1968-1976)
Anatoly Gribkov (1976-1989)
Vladimir Lobov (1989-1991)
Founded14 May 1955
Dissolved1 July 1991
HeadquartersUSSR, Moscow, Leningradsky Ave., 41
SloganUnion of Peace and Socialism
Союз Мира и Социализма

The Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, (Warsaw Treaty Organization) or more commonly known by the name Warsaw Pact was a socialist and anti-imperialist mutual defense pact between the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries.[1] It initially included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR. Albania left the Warsaw Pact in 1968 after siding with China in the Sino-Soviet split.[2]

The organization's foundation was a result of the West German accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1955 and the subsequent concerns it caused for collective security and lasting peace in Europe.[3]

Socialist states in Europe resorted to the creation of WTO following the 1954 attempt by the Soviet Union to join NATO, the aim of which was to ensure and expand collective security, which was ultimately rejected by Western powers.[4]

Military Operations

Joint troops of Warsaw Treaty Organization were used only once in 1968 on the territory of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, where an attempt at counterrevolution had occurred, aimed at introducing market mechanisms into the Czechoslovak economy.[5]

On the night of August 21st, 1968, joint troops of the Soviet Union, Bulgarian People's Republic, Hungarian People's Republic, German Democratic Republic and Polish People's Republic entered Czechoslovakia and by August 26th the operation was finished.[6]


  1. "The Warsaw Pact is formed" (2009-11-13). Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  2. Omari & Pollo (1988). The History of the Socialist Construction of Albania (pp. 289–290). [PDF] Tirana: 8 Nëntori Publishing House.
  3. N.E. Bystrova (2005). On history of creation of the Warsaw Treaty Organization.
  4. Warsaw pact: 36 years of serving peace in Europe. Политотдел.рф.
  5. Paradoxes of the Prague Spring. История.рф.
  6. "Prague Spring" of 1968 and the withdrawal of Soviet Troops from Czechoslovakia. РИА Новости.