Pedro Castillo

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Pedro Castillo
Born19 October 1969
Puña, Cajamarca, Peru

José Pedro Castillo Terrones (born 19 October 1969) is a Peruvian schoolteacher, union leader and politician who served as the 63rd President of Peru from 28 July 2021 until his overthrow by USA and OAS-backed forces in December 2022.[1] He grew up in an impoverished peasant family and thus advocates for policies which will help the poor.[2][3] The governments of Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia condemned the coup against him.[1]

Political positions


Analysts described Castillo as an agrarian leftist, populist, and socialist.[4][5][6] He has said that he is not a communist and that he is not a Chavista.[7] Although he is described as far-left by multiple international news agencies,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Castillo has distanced himself from the far-left Marxist faction of the Free Peru party that chose him as a candidate, stating that "the one who is going to govern is me" and there will be "no communism" in Peru under his government.[15][16][17]

Farid Kahhat of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru stated that Castillo has a limited relationship with Free Peru and separated himself from the party's leader, adding that "it is important to remember that Castillo is a candidate but not a party member...we might even say he is more conservative than the ideals of Perú Libre would suggest."[18]

He is frequently described as "socially conservative."[19][20][21][22][23] which will likely be used by Western intelligence agencies to demonize him in the eyes of western progressives, as was done against Ecuador's leftist Correísta movement.[24]

Castillo proposed increasing the education and health budgets to at least ten percent of Peru's GDP.[25][26] Castillo believes that internet access should be a right for all Peruvians.[27] He proposed a science and technology ministry that would immediately be tasked with combating the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru.[28]


Proposed social policies from Castillo include creating paramilitary groups and militarizing Peruvian youth in order to promote a revolutionary experience, calling for citizens to arm themselves in order to provide justice through "socialist administration."[29]


Castillo defended the government of Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela, describing it as "a democratic government,"[30][31][32] while his Free Peru party has shared praise for the policies of Fidel Castro and Hugo Chávez.[33]


Castillo won the 2021 presidential election on 6 June 2021 with 50.13% of the vote. He defeated Keiko Fujimori, the daughter of former neoliberal dictator Alberto Fujimori.[34] In one of his first acts as President, the Castillo government withdrew Peru from the US-controlled Lima Group, which was created to support Juan Guaidó, in opposition to the government of Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela.[35]

Castillo has appointed Guido Bellido to the position of Prime Minister, the second most powerful position in government. Bellido is a socialist and a member of the Free Peru party.[36]

Castillo has warned the gas sector that if they don't pay higher taxes, they might face nationalization.[37] This may have inspired a CIA coup, as policies like nationalization threaten the business interests protected by the CIA.

In April 2022, right-wing protests began in Peru against inflation caused by NATO and EU sanctions against Russia. The protests resulted in at least nine deaths.[38]

On 6 December, the Minister of Defense Gustavo Bebbio met with Lisa Kenna, a CIA agent acting as ambassador in Peru.[39] A day after, the Peruvian congress impeached Castillo, and security forces arrested him.[40] The Peruvian oligarchy installed Dina Boluarte to succeed him.[34]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Ben Norton (2022-12-13). "Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia back Peru’s President Castillo, condemn ‘anti-democratic harassment’" Multipolarista. Archived from the original on 2022-12-16. Retrieved 2022-12-16.
  2. CGTN on YouTube
  4. "Students' struggles pushed Peru teacher to run for president" (2021-04-18). Associated Press. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  5. "Ecuador gira a la derecha y la ultraizquierda pasa a segunda vuelta en Perú". EFE. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  6. "Who is Peru's Frontrunner Pedro Castillo?" (14 April 2021). North American Congress on Latin America. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  7. "'We are not communists': Castillo seeks to allay fears in divided Peru" (16 June 2021). Reuters. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  8. "Far-left activist Castillo leads in Peru presidential election upset". The Irish Times. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  9. "Peru's presidential runoff pits far-left teacher against rightwing populist" (14 April 2021). France 24. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  10. "Far left candidate Pedro Castillo leads Peruvian presidential race: Ipsos fast count | The Star". Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  11. "Far-left activist leads in Peru presidential election upset" (12 April 2021). Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  12. "Peru Election for the 5th President in 5 Years Goes to Runoff" (12 April 2021). Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  13. "Peru Election Pits Fan of Castro Against Authoritarian Ex-Leader's Daughter" (13 April 2021). Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  14. "Far left candidate Pedro Castillo leads Peruvian presidential race – Ipsos fast count" (12 April 2021). Reuters. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  15. "Buenos Aires Times | Inequality fuels rural teacher's unlikely bid to upend Peru" (3 June 2021). Buenos Aires Times. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  16. "'No Chavismo here': Peru socialist candidate Castillo seeks to calm jittery markets" (22 April 2021). Reuters. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  17. "Pedro Castillo arremete contra Nicolás Maduro: 'que primero arregle sus problemas internos y que se lleve a sus compatriotas que vinieron a delinquir'" (22 April 2021). Diario Expreso. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  18. "Pedro Castillo Can Help End Neoliberalism in Peru" (1 June 2021). Jacobin. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  19. “Both candidates are socially conservative – opposed to abortion and gay marriage.”

    "Far-left schoolteacher, rightwing populist vie for Peru presidency" (13 April 2021). France 24. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  20. "Pedro Castillo, the barefoot candidate poised to become the next president of Peru" (10 June 2021). El País. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  21. “Pedro Castillo, a far-left but socially conservative union leader and teacher”

    "Peru faces poll dilemma: a leftist firebrand or the dictator's daughter?" (5 June 2021). the Guardian. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  22. “two socially conservative candidates that oppose abortion, same-sex marriage and gender equality-based education.”

    "Peru election pits 2 candidates opposed by women's rights, LGBT+ activists" (4 June 2021). La Prensa Latina Media. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  23. “two autocratic and socially conservative candidates who each routinely flout social distancing at their campaign rallies and appear to have a shaky grasp of the science around the pandemic”

    "Peru is Officially Investigating If Bleach Can Cure Covid" (14 May 2021). VICE. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  25. "Perú se encamina a una lucha por la presidencia entre el radical Pedro Castillo y Keiko Fujimori" (12 April 2021). El País. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  26. "Pedro Castillo está en contra del enfoque de género en el currículo escolar" (7 April 2021). Gestion. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  27. "Contrasting Platforms in Peru's Presidential Runoff" (1 June 2021). Americas Society/Council of the Americas. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  28. "Contrasting Platforms in Peru's Presidential Runoff" (2021-06-01). Americas Society/Council of the Americas. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  29. "Who is Peru's Frontrunner Pedro Castillo?" (14 April 2021). North American Congress on Latin America. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  30. "Pedro Castillo, el maestro con el que se identifica el otro Perú" (12 April 2021). France 24. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  31. "Castillo and Fujimori, rivals vying for Peru's presidency" (13 April 2021). France 24. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  32. "Pedro Castillo califica de "democrático" el Gobierno de Nicolás Maduro" (11 April 2021). Exitosa Noticias. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  33. "Peru Stocks Tumble as Presidential Vote Spooks Investors" (11 April 2021). Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Manolo De Los Santos (2022-12-08). "Peru’s oligarchy overthrows President Castillo" Liberation News. Archived from the original on 2022-12-09. Retrieved 2022-12-09.
  35. "Peru to withdraw from the US-controlled Lima Group" (2021-08-06). TeleSur. Retrieved 2022-12-28.
  37. Peru PM warns gas sector: pay higher taxes or face nationalization by Marcelo Rochabrun on Reuters - September 26, 2021
  38. Carlos Noriega (2022-04-05). "Castillo ante un escenario de revuelta social" Página 12. Archived from the original on 2022-04-05. Retrieved 2022-04-09.
  39. "Ministro de Defensa se reunió con embajadora de los Estados Unidos" (2022-12-06). Agencia Andina. Retrieved 2022-12-28.
  40. "Peruvian police detain Castillo after congressional impeachment" (2022-12-08). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2022-12-07.