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Communism (from Latin communis, 'common, universal') is a mode of production characterized by common ownership of the means of production and the absence of class antagonisms. The term is also used to refer to the movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of this mode of production.

The material abundance and resultant social relations of such a society can be summarized by the slogan: "From each according to their ability, to each according to their needs." which was popularized in Karl Marx's 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program.

In the first volume of Capital, Marx mentions it as "an association of free men, working with the means of production held in common, and expending their many different forms of labour-power in full self-awareness as one single social labour force"[1]


  1. See note in Capital, vol. I – The fetishism of the commodity and its secret