A mode of production is the system of relations guiding material production, the way of acquiring the material resources necessary for social life. It can be summarized as the sum total of productive forces and the relations of production that exist at any given moment.
|Mode of production||Time of Origin||Productive forces||Relations of production|
|Primitive communism||Prehistory||Hunter-gatherers' labor, primitive stone tools||In the small tribe or community, everyone works together for survival through foraging and hunting. There is no 'private property'.|
|Slave society||Early civilizations||Slave labor, metal tools, beasts of burden, handicraft||Through the social division of labor, society stratifies into classes, which leads to the creation of the state. The contradiction between slave-owners and slaves is primary, as slavery provides the cheapest form of surplus extraction.|
|Feudalism||Medieval period||Serf labor, craftsmen, more advanced metal tools, beasts of burden, handicrafts, small commodity production||The contradiction between landowner and peasant existed already in slave-based society, but it becomes the standard under feudalism. Landowners wield political and legal power to coerce surplus value from serfs working their land. Over the course of feudal history, a merchant class arises in towns, and craftsmen and artisans engage in simple commodity production, which eventually leads to the development of capitalism.|
|Capitalism||Renaissance||Wage labor, large-scale industry, agriculture and large-scale for-profit commodity production||As the merchant class gains dominance over the economy, the sale of goods for profit and further accumulation of profit leads to a system of mass production, investment by financiers and the inception of a class of wage laborers, who are coerced with the threat of homelessness or starvation to sell their labor on the market. Production for profit creates disequilibrium and leads to crisis.|
|Socialism||1920s||Labor, collectivised industry and agriculture, commodity production for use||Collective industrial forces and agriculture are centrally planned by the workers' state, directing all economic activity towards meeting human need rather than profit, and in order to rapidly industrialize and modernize the country for the sake of advancement to communism.|
|Communism||Future||Post-scarcity society, an abundance of material wealth available to all members of society||Absence of class antagonism, money, and production guided by the slogan "From each according to their ability, to each according to their need"|