Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

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Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल
Flag of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Emblem of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Location of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
and largest city
Official languagesNepali
• President
Bidya Devi Bhandari
• Vice President
Nanda Kishor Pun
• Prime Minister
Sher Bahadur Deuba
• Chief Justice
Cholendra Shumsher JB Rana
• Total
147,516 km²
• 2018 estimate

Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia.


In 1769, Nepal was united under the Hindu Shah dynasty. After being defeated by the British East India Company, Nepal became a British protectorate. In 1846, most of the royal family was killed in the Kot massacre and military administrator Jang Bahadur Rana took power, establishing the Rana dynasty. The Rana dynasty was a constitutional monarchy and it assisted the British in their invasions of Tibet and Afghanistan and in the First World War. During this period, land was given to private owners and Nepal became a feudal country. In the 1920s, the British recognized Nepal as an independent state.

The Rana dynasty ended in 1951 when King Tribhuvan fled to India. After an armed conflict began, India intervened and established a provisional government that included members of the royal family. In March 1951, Tribhuvan was given the ability to issue edicts, and full executive power was given to the king in September 1952. Tribhuvan died in 1955 and was succeeded by Mahendra, who ruled until 1971. In 1959, Mahendra allowed elections to held, which were won by the Nepali Congress. In 1960, King Mahendra dissolved the parliament and returned to being an absolute monarch.

In 1990, a new constitution was adopted that established an elected government and limited the powers of the monarch.[1] After years of struggle against the monarchy culminating in a revolution in 2006, led principally by the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) and what is now the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), in 2008 Nepal became a federal republic following pressure by the Nepalese Maoists.[2][3]


As of December 2022[4] the seats held by communist parties in the bicameral legislature are as follows.

House of Representatives:

  • 32 by CPN (MC)
  • 78 by CPN (UML)

Total of 110 seats out of 275 or 40% total.

National Assembly:

  • 16 by CPN (MC)
  • 8 by CPN (US)
  • 17 by CPN (UML)

Total of 41 seats out of 59 or 69% total.


  1. Spyros Sakellaropoulos (2011). On the Causes of the Civil War in Nepal and the Role of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) (pp. 1–9).
  2. "Nepal abolishes centuries-old Hindu monarchy" (2008-05-29). Reuters. Retrieved 2022-05-28.
  3. "Nepal to abolish monarchy" (2007-12-24). National Public Radio (NPR).
  4. "Federal Parliament of Nepal" (2022-10-21). Wikipedia. Retrieved 2022-12-20.