|Republic of Indonesia|
and largest city
|Dominant mode of production||Capitalism|
• 2021 estimate
• 2020 census
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is an island country in Southeast Asia.
In 1948, during negotiations with the Dutch, the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) attempted a revolution. The army killed many of the PKI's leaders and jailed about 36,000 people.
President Sukarno tried to form an alliance between the PKI and his nationalist movement. In 1957, he declared martial law to prevent a communist revolution because 30% of soldiers were in the PKI.:152–3
In October 1965, General Suharto accused the PKI of organizing a coup attempt after the death of six generals. He overthrew non-aligned president Sukarno with British, Australian, and Statesian support and began mass executions of communists and suspected leftists. The CIA provided lists of thousands of suspected communists to Suharto. Trade unionists and ethnic Chinese were also targeted.
Invasion of East Timor
In 1975, one day after U.S. President Gerald Ford and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger finished their visit to Indonesia, Suharto began an invasion of East Timor. Indonesian forces overthrew East Timor's government and killed 100,000 to 200,000 people out of a total population of 600,000. The CIA stated that this may not have been possible without U.S. support. Suharto ruled until 1998.
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- Austin Murphy (2000). The Triumph of Evil: 'Introduction' (p. 41). European Press Academic Publishing.
- "Indonesia: US Documents Released on 1965-66 Massacres" (2017-10-18). Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 2022-03-24. Retrieved 2022-05-07.
- Michael Parenti (1995). Against Empire: 'Imperial Domination Updated; With Rational Violence' (p. 16).