United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Ruvaneth Unys Breten Veur hag Iwerdhon Gledh
Reeriaght Unnaneysit y Vretyn Vooar as Nerin Hwoaie
An Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mhòr agus Eirinn a Tuath
Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland
Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
Flag of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Flag
Coat of arms of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Coat of arms
Location of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Capital
and largest city
London
Mode of productionCapitalism
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary bourgeois state
• Monarch
Charles Windsor
• Prime Minister
Rishi Sunak
History
• Annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England
1536
Area
• Total
242,495 km² (78th)
Population
• 2020 estimate
67,886,004
Labour
• Labour force
34,708,550[1]
• Labour force participation
78.1%[3]
• Occupation
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 15.2%
services: 83.5%[4]
• Unemployment rate
4.8%[2]
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
$3.124 trillion[5]
• Per capita
$46,344[5]
Exports2019 estimate
• Value
$894.077 billion[6]
• Commodities
cars, gas turbines, gold, crude petroleum, packaged medicines[4]
• Partners
United States (15%),
Germany (10%),
China (7%)[4]
Imports2019 estimate
• Value
$924.69 billion[7]
• Commodities
gold, cars, crude petroleum, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment[4]
• Partners
Germany (13%),
China (10%),
Netherlands (7%)
External debt$8.721 trillion[4] (2nd)
Gini (2018)33.5%
HDI (2019)0.932
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, often shortened to the United Kingdom or UK, is an imperialist island country located in Europe. It comprises England, Scotland, and Wales and is also currently occupying six counties of Ireland. The UK was a founding member of NATO and SEATO. It has the fourth largest military budget in the world and the second most foreign military bases behind the United States of America. MI6, the British secret police, has connections to the NSA and Five Eyes.[8] The British Empire was a major colonial power and was responsible for over 160 million deaths in India alone.[9]

Colonialism

The British Empire colonized parts of North America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania and controlled nearly 25% of the world's land area at its peak.[10]

Africa

During the Boer Wars in South Africa, the British destroyed farms and dumped salt in wells. In the Second Boer War, between 1899 and 1902, they built over 100 concentration camps for Boers and Africans. 30,000 Boers died in these camps, mostly children, as well as 20,000 Africans who were not largely involved in the war.

During the Mau Mau Uprising of 1952 in Kenya, nearly the entire civilian population of the Kikuyu was placed in work camps by the British. Some were dragged across the ground by military vehicles or mauled by guard dogs.[10]

Asia

Over five million Indians died in famines during the 1870s under the British Raj. During another famine in 1943, Prime Minister Winston Churchill blamed the Indians for the famine, saying "Famine or no famine, Indians will breed like rabbits."

In 1903, the British Indian Army invaded Tibet due to rumors that the Qing dynasty was going to allow Russia to occupy Tibet. When they encountered 3,000 Tibetans blocking a road, they fired on them, killing over 700 people. Parts of Tibet were occupied by the British until 1908.

In Amritsar, Punjab, in 1919, a large crowd gathered to celebrate the festival of Baisakhi. The British Indian Army blocked the exits and fired on the crowd, killing over a thousand and wounding 1,100 more.

During the Malayan Emergency of the 1950s, the British forcibly relocated Chinese people in Malaya into 450 "New Villages." No one was allowed in or out without the permission of the guards.[10]

Hong Kong

The British took control of the Chinese territory of Hong Kong in the 19th century following the Opium Wars. For 150 years, a British-appointed governor ruled the territory without being chosen by the people of Hong Kong. Hong Kong returned to Chinese sovereignty on 1 July 1997 and is administered under One Country, Two Systems.[8]

Ireland

In 1845, potato blight destroyed the potato harvest in Ireland, beginning a famine. The British appointed Charles Trevelyan to administer Ireland during the famine. Trevelyan adopted a laissez-faire attitude and wrote that the famine was an "effective mechanism for reducing surplus population" and "the judgement of God to teach the Irish a lesson." Exports of food from Ireland increased during the famine and over a million people starved to death.[10]

Military

The UK has 145 military bases in 42 countries and territories, including five countries encircling China. The 15 British bases in Saudi Arabia are contributing the Saudi invasion of Yemen. In 2021, the British government published a document saying it would expand its nuclear arsenal from 200 to 260 weapons, which is a violation of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.[8]

References