|Republic of Nicaragua|
República de Nicaragua
and largest city
|Recognized regional languages||English|
Miskito Coast Creole
Rama Cay Creole
|Dominant mode of production||Capitalism (ruled by a socialist party)|
• Independence from Spain
|1821 September 15th|
• 2022 estimate
The Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) is a socialist party in Nicaragua.
Jose Santos Zelaya ruled from 1893 to 1909 and modernized the country under a liberal government. In October 1909, conservatives led by Juan Estrada overthrew the government. After government forces executed two U.S. mercenaries working for the rebels, the U.S. sent a force of 400 marines to the city of Bluefields. With U.S. support, Estrada took power in 1911.
In August 1912, another 2,700 U.S. marines arrived in Nicaragua. The United States occupied Nicaragua for twenty years and Nicaragua's conservative government lasted until 1925. Augusto Sandino led a resistance against the occupation and defeated the U.S. with guerrilla warfare, but the autocratic US-backed Somoza dynasty murdered Sandino in 1934 and took power in 1936.
The last Somoza leader, Anastasios II, was defeated in 1979 and Daniel Ortega took power, winning over two-thirds of the vote in 1984. The CIA trained far-right terrorists known as the Contras to destabilize the Sandinista government. The United States denied supporting them, but it was proven in 1986 when the Sandinistas shot down a Contra plane and found out that the pilots were both CIA agents. The CIA also funded the Contras by selling weapons to Iran and growing cocaine and selling it to Black communities in the United States.
2006–present Sandinista government
In 2006, the Sandinista government was elected into power.
In 2018, the United States backed far-right extremists to attempt to overthrow the Sandinista government to try to reverse its socialist policies which redistributed oil wealth to the poor, among other policies.
In 2021, Nicaragua celebrated the 42nd anniversary of their Sandinista Revolution, celebrating victories such as the implementation of free universal healthcare, free education, new high-quality infrastructure, the empowerment of women and youth, as well as the strengthening of Nicaragua on a global stage. In a speech, Vice President Murillo called poverty a "diabolical imperialist threat," referencing how the West is engaging in economic warfare (sanctions) in an effort to foment regime change.
The 2021 Nicaraguan general election was held on November 7th, where the socialist FSLN party was victorious. Imperialist powers sought to destabilize the electoral process but the socialists reigned victorious. The election can be viewed as a rejection on U.S. colonialism and interference.
The Nicaraguan National Assembly has cancelled the legal status of various NGOs which are used by the imperialist CIA as soft power influence operations. This action has been described as "defending the [Nicaraguan] Revolution."
The socialist policies of the Sandinista government have benefitted women, especially rural and low-income women in particular. Due to the Sandinistas' free health care system, infant mortality has dropped by more than half and chronic malnutrition has decreased by 66% since 2007.
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- Dieter Nohlen (2005). Elections in the Americas A Data Handbook Volume 1. North America, Central America, and the Caribbean.
- Kathryn Albrecht. "Nicaragua's Joys and Sorrow: The Coup That Failed" Popular Resistance.
- Kevin Zeese (2018-07-22). "Violent Coup Fails in Nicaragua, U.S. Continues Regime Change Efforts" TruthDig.
- Nicaragua’s Sandinistas battle ‘diabolical’ US empire and poverty on 42nd anniversary of revolution
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- Lauren Smith (2021-12-06). "Nicaragua’s Evidence-Based Democracy Threatens U.S. Oppression Domestically and Abroad" CovertAction Magazine.
- William Grigsby Vado (2022-02-10). "NicaNotes: We Won’t Rest in Defending the Revolution" Alliance for Global Justice.
- Stansfield Smith. "NicaNotes: The Gains of Nicaraguan Women during the Second Sandinista Government" Alliance for Global Justice.
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