Islamic Republic of Iran

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Islamic Republic of Iran

جمهوری اسلامی ایران
Motto: Independence, Freedom, Islamic Republic
and largest city
Official languagesPersian
GovernmentCapitalist presidential republic
• Leader[1]
Great Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei
• President
Dr. Hassan Rohani
• Vice President
Eshaq Jahangiri
• Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
Mohammad Ghalibaf
1979 Feb 12th
• 2017 estimate
CurrencyIranian Rial

The Islamic Republic of Iran, also called Persia[2] and Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is the second-largest country in the Middle East, and its capital and largest city is Tehran.

Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations,[3][4] beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC.

The modern Government of Iran is an Islamic republic which includes elements of a presidential democracy, which was installed by a popular revolution against the US-backed Monarchy of the Shah.

Iran's geography makes it geo-strategically important for the modern global oil markets, as it is the northern coast of the Straight of Hormuz which is a maritime chokepoint through which a third of the world's liquefied natural gas and a quarter of global oil trade passes through.

Iran's economy is dominated by state-owned enterprises, which make up 60% of the total GDP.

A unique feature of Iran's economy is the presence of large religious foundations called Bonyad, whose combined budgets represent more than 30 percent of central government spending.[5]

After the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Bonyads were nationalized and renamed with the declared intention of redistributing income to the poor and families of martyrs.[6]

Historically, Iran has had ties with the Black liberation movement and the Nation of Islam.[7]