Black Panther Party

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The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a communist party founded by college students Bobby Seale (Chairman) and Huey P. Newton in October 1966 in Oakland, California.[1][2] The party was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982, with chapters in numerous major cities, and international chapters in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s,[3] and in Algeria from 1969 to 1972.[4] At its inception on October 15, 1966,[5] the Black Panther Party's core practice was its open carry armed citizens' patrols ("copwatching") to monitor the behavior of officers of the Oakland Police Department and challenge police brutality in the city.

In 1969, a variety of community social programs became a core activity.[6] The Party instituted the Free Breakfast for Children Programs to address food injustice, and community health clinics for education and treatment of diseases including sickle cell anemia, tuberculosis, and later HIV/AIDS.[7][8][9]

Membership of the party reached a peak in 1970, with offices in 68 cities and thousands of members, but it began to decline over the following decade. After its leaders and members were vilified by the mainstream press, public support for the party waned, and the group became more isolated.[10] In-fighting among Party leadership, fomented largely by the FBI's COINTELPRO operation, led to expulsions and defections that decimated the membership.[11]

Ten-Point Program

The Black Panther Party first publicized its original "What We Want Now!" Ten-Point program on May 15, 1967, following the Sacramento action, in the second issue of The Black Panther newspaper.[12]

  1. We want freedom. We want power to determine the destiny of our Black Community.
  2. We want full employment for our people.
  3. We want an end to the robbery by the Capitalists of our Black Community.
  4. We want decent housing, fit for shelter of human beings.
  5. We want education for our people that exposes the true nature of this decadent American society. We want education that teaches us our true history and our role in the present day society.
  6. We want all Black men to be exempt from military service.
  7. We want an immediate end to POLICE BRUTALITY and MURDER of Black people.
  8. We want freedom for all Black men held in federal, state, county and city prisons and jails.
  9. We want all Black people when brought to trial to be tried in court by a jury of their peer group or people from their Black Communities, as defined by the Constitution of the United States.
  10. We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace.

External links

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References

  1. Joseph, Peniel (2006). Waiting 'Til the Midnight Hour: A Narrative History of Black Power in America. Henry Holt. p. 219.
  2. Van Deburg, William L. (1992). New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975. University of Chicago Press. p. 155.
  3. Brown, Mark (December 27, 2013). "Britain's black power movement is at risk of being forgotten, say historians". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
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  5. "October 15, 1966: The Black Panther Party Is Founded". The Nation.  0027-8378. Archived from the original on December 21, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
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  9. Nelson, Alondra (2011). Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight against Medical Discrimination. University of Minnesota Press.
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  12. Black Panther Newspaper, May 15, 1967, p. 3; Template:Harvnb